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Three-Column Osteotomy for the Treatment of Rigid Cervical Deformity.


Adult cervical deformity (ACD) has been shown to have a substantial impact on quality of life and overall health, with moderate to severe deformities resulting in significant disability and dysfunction. Fortunately, surgical management and correction of cervical sagittal imbalance can offer significant benefits and improvement in pain and disability. ACD is a heterogenous disease and specific surgical correction strategies should reflect deformity type (driver of deformity) and patient-related factors. Spinal rigidity is one of the most important considerations as soft tissue releases and osteotomies play a crucial role in cervical deformity correction. For ankylosed, fixed, and severe deformity, 3-column osteotomy (3CO) is often warranted. A 3CO can be done through combined anteriorposterior (vertebral body resection) and posterior-only approaches (open or closed wedge pedicle subtraction osteotomies [PSOs]). This article reviews the literature for currently published studies that report results on the use of 3CO for ACD, with a special concentration on posterior based 3CO (open and closed wedge PSO). More specifically, this review discusses the indications, radiographic corrective ability, and associated complications.

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