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Wnt signaling pathways in urological cancers: past decades and still growing.


Abstract The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in a wide range of embryonic patterning events and maintenance of homeostasis in adult tissues. The pathological role of the Wnt pathway has emerged from studies showing a high frequency of specific human cancers associated with mutations that constitutively activate the transcriptional response of these pathways. Constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a common feature of solid tumors and contributes to tumor development, progression and metastasis in various cancers. In this review, the Wnt pathway will be covered from the perspective of urological cancers with emphasis placed on the recent published literature. Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNA), small RNA sequences that modify gene expression profiles will also be discussed. An improved understanding of the basic genetics and biology of Wnt signaling pathway will provide insights into the development of novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies for urological cancers.

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