Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Living Bacteria-Based Immuno-Photodynamic Therapy: Metabolic Labeling of Clostridium butyricum for Eradicating Malignant Melanoma.


Due to the complexity, aggressiveness, and heterogeneity of malignant melanoma, it is difficult to eradicate the whole tumor through conventional treatment. Herein, a strategy of metabolic engineering labeled anaerobic oncolytic bacteria (Clostridium butyricum) is demonstrated to achieve the ablation of melanoma. In this system, the metabolic substrate of C. butyricum d-alanine (d-Ala) is first conjugated with a photosensitizer (TPApy) showing aggregation-induced emission (AIE). The yielded metabolic substrate of d-Ala-TPAPy can be metabolically incorporated into bacterial peptidoglycan to form engineered C. Butyricum. Once the engineered C. butyricum is injected into melanoma, the bacteria can only proliferate in an anaerobic zone, stimulate the tumor immune microenvironment, and ablate the tumor hypoxia region. Following that, the relatively rich oxygen content in the peripheral area can induce the death of C. butyricum. The photosensitizer (PS) on the bacteria can subsequently exert a photodynamic effect in the oxygen-rich region and further remove the melanoma residue under light irradiation. Prominent in vivo melanoma ablation results revealed that the engineering oncolytic bacteria can provide a promising regime for solid tumor eradication.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View