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Colloidal Synthesis of Silicon–Carbon Composite Material for Lithium‐Ion Batteries


We report colloidal routes to synthesize silicon@carbon composites for the first time. Surface-functionalized Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) dissolved in styrene and hexadecane are used as the dispersed phase in oil-in-water emulsions, from which yolk-shell and dual-shell hollow SiNPs@C composites are produced via polymerization and subsequent carbonization. As anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the SiNPs@C composites demonstrate excellent cycling stability and rate performance, which is ascribed to the uniform distribution of SiNPs within the carbon hosts. The Li-ion anodes composed of 46 wt % of dual-shell SiNPs@C, 46 wt % of graphite, 5 wt % of acetylene black, and 3 wt % of carboxymethyl cellulose with an areal loading higher than 3 mg cm-2 achieve an overall specific capacity higher than 600 mAh g-1 , which is an improvement of more than 100 % compared to the pure graphite anode. These new colloidal routes present a promising general method to produce viable Si-C composites for Li-ion batteries.

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