Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Scatter Artifact with Ga-68-PSMA-11 PET: Severity Reduced With Furosemide Diuresis and Improved Scatter Correction.

  • Author(s): Lawhn-Heath, Courtney
  • Flavell, Robert R
  • Korenchan, David E
  • Deller, Timothy
  • Lake, Spencer
  • Carroll, Peter R
  • Hope, Thomas A
  • et al.


To assess the utility of furosemide diuresis and the role of an improved scatter correction algorithm in reducing scatter artifact severity on Ga-68- Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-11 positron emission tomography (PET).

Materials and methods

A total of 139 patients underwent Ga-68-PSMA-11 PET imaging for prostate cancer: 47 non-time-of-flight (non-TOF) PET/computed tomography, 51 PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the standard TOF scatter correction algorithm, and 41 PET/MRI using an improved TOF scatter correction algorithm. Whole-body PET acquisitions were subdivided into 3 regions: around kidneys; between kidneys and bladder; and around bladder. The images were reviewed, and scatter artifact severity was rated using a Likert-type scale.


The worst scatter occurred when using non-TOF scatter correction without furosemide, where 42.1% of patients demonstrated severe scatter artifacts in 1 or more regions. Improved TOF scatter correction resulted in the smallest percentage of studies with severe scatter (6.5%). Scatter ratings by region were lowest using improved TOF scatter correction. Furosemide reduced mean scatter severity when using non-TOF and standard TOF.


Both furosemide and scatter correction algorithm play a role in reducing scatter in PSMA PET. Improved TOF scatter correction resulted in the lowest scatter severity.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View