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Kaempferol treatment after TBI during early development mitigates brain parenchymal microstructure and neural functional connectivity deterioration at adolescence.

  • Author(s): Parent, Maxime
  • Chitturi, Jyothsna
  • Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi
  • Hyder, Fahmeed
  • Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G
  • Kannurpatti, Sridhar
  • et al.
Abstract

Targeting mitochondrial ion homeostasis using Kaempferol, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter channel activator, improves energy metabolism and behavior soon after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in developing rats. Due to broad TBI pathophysiology and brain mitochondrial heterogeneity, Kaempferol mediated early-stage behavioral and brain metabolic benefits may accrue from diverse sources within the brain. We hypothesized that Kaempferol influences TBI outcome by differentially impacting the neural, vascular and synaptic/axonal compartments. Following TBI at early development (P31), fMRI and DTI were applied to determine imaging outcomes at adolescence (2-months post-injury). Vehicle and Kaempferol treatments were made at 1, 24 and 48 hrs post-TBI and their effects were assessed at adolescence. A significant increase in neural connectivity was observed after Kaempferol treatment as assessed by the spatial extent and strength of the somatosensory cortical and hippocampal RSFC networks. However, no significant RSFC changes were observed in the thalamus. DTI measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), representing synaptic/axonal and microstructural integrity, showed significant improvements after Kaempferol treatment, with highest changes in the frontal and parietal cortices and hippocampus. Kaempferol treatment also increased corpus callosal FA, indicating measurable improvement in the inter-hemispheric structural connectivity. TBI prognosis was significantly altered at adolescence by early Kaempferol treatment, with improved neural connectivity, neurovascular coupling and parenchymal microstructure in select brain regions. However, Kaempferol failed to improve vasomotive function across the whole brain, as measured by cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). The differential effects of Kaempferol treatment on various brain functional compartments support diverse cellular-level mitochondrial functional outcomes in vivo.

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