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Assessment of the Frail Patient With End‐Stage Liver Disease: A Practical Overview of Sarcopenia, Physical Function, and Disability

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Frailty has emerged as a powerful predictor of clinical outcomes (e.g., decompensation, hospitalization, mortality) in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). It is therefore of paramount importance that all patients with ESLD undergo an assessment of frailty, to support life and death decision making (i.e., candidacy for critical care, transplantation) and aid with prioritization of evolving prehabilitation services (i.e., nutrition, physiotherapy, psychotherapy). This article aims to provide a practical overview of the recent advances in the clinical, radiological, and remote assessment tools of the frail patient with ESLD. Historically, clinicians have incorporated an assessment of frailty using the "end-of-the-bed test" or "eyeball test" into their clinical decision making. However, over the last decade, numerous nonspecific and specific tools have emerged. The current evidence supports the use of a combination of simple, user-friendly, objective measures to first identify frailty in ESLD (notably Clinical Frailty Scale, Liver Frailty Index), followed by a combination of serial tools to assess specifically sarcopenia (i.e., muscle ultrasound), physical function (i.e., chair stands, hand grip strength), functional capacity (i.e., 6-minute walk test), and physical disability (i.e., activities of daily living).

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