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Circadian rhythms in insecticide susceptibility, metabolic enzyme activity, and gene expression in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).


Many insect species display daily variation of sensitivity to insecticides when they are exposed to the same concentration at different times during the day. To date, this has not been investigated in bed bugs. To address this, we explored circadian rhythms in insecticide susceptibility, xenobiotic metabolizing (XM) gene expressions, and metabolic detoxification in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. An insecticide susceptible Monheim strain of C. lectularius was most tolerant of deltamethrin during the late photophase at ZT9 (i.e. nine hours after light is present in the light-dark cycle (LD) cycle) and similarly repeated at CT9 (i.e. nine hours into the subjective day in constant darkness (DD)) suggesting endogenous circadian involvement in susceptibility to deltamethrin. No diel rhythm was observed against imidacloprid insecticide despite significant daily susceptibility in both LD and DD conditions. Rhythmic expressions of metabolic detoxification genes, GSTs1 and CYP397A1 displayed similar expression patterns with total GST and P450 enzyme activities in LD and DD conditions, respectively. The oscillation of mRNA levels of GSTs1 and CYP397A1 was found consistent with peak phases of deltamethrin susceptibility in C. lectularius. This study demonstrates that circadian patterns of metabolic detoxification gene expression occur within C. lectularius. As a consequence, insecticide efficacy can vary dramatically throughout a 24 hour period.

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