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Open Access Publications from the University of California

One-loop universality of holographic codes

  • Author(s): Dong, X
  • Marolf, D
  • et al.

© 2020, The Author(s). Recent work showed holographic error correcting codes to have simple universal features at O(1/G). In particular, states of fixed Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) area in such codes are associated with flat entanglement spectra indicating maximal entanglement between appropriate subspaces. We extend such results to one-loop order (O(1) corrections) by controlling both higher-derivative corrections to the bulk effective action and dynamical quantum fluctuations below the cutoff. This result clarifies the relation between the bulk path integral and the quantum code, and implies that i) simple tensor network models of holography continue to match the behavior of holographic CFTs beyond leading order in G, ii) the relation between bulk and boundary modular Hamiltonians derived by Jafferis, Lewkowycz, Maldacena, and Suh holds as an operator equation on the code subspace and not just in code-subspace expectation values, and iii) the code subspace is invariant under an appropriate notion of modular flow. A final corollary requires interesting cancelations to occur in the bulk renormalization-group flow of holographic quantum codes. Intermediate technical results include showing the Lewkowycz-Maldacena computation of RT entropy to take the form of a Hamilton-Jacobi variation of the action with respect to boundary conditions, corresponding results for higher-derivative actions, and generalizations to allow RT surfaces with finite conical angles.

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