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Programmed DNA destruction by miniature CRISPR-Cas14 enzymes.

  • Author(s): Harrington, Lucas B
  • Burstein, David
  • Chen, Janice S
  • Paez-Espino, David
  • Ma, Enbo
  • Witte, Isaac P
  • Cofsky, Joshua C
  • Kyrpides, Nikos C
  • Banfield, Jillian F
  • Doudna, Jennifer A
  • et al.
Abstract

CRISPR-Cas systems provide microbes with adaptive immunity to infectious nucleic acids and are widely employed as genome editing tools. These tools use RNA-guided Cas proteins whose large size (950 to 1400 amino acids) has been considered essential to their specific DNA- or RNA-targeting activities. Here we present a set of CRISPR-Cas systems from uncultivated archaea that contain Cas14, a family of exceptionally compact RNA-guided nucleases (400 to 700 amino acids). Despite their small size, Cas14 proteins are capable of targeted single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) cleavage without restrictive sequence requirements. Moreover, target recognition by Cas14 triggers nonspecific cutting of ssDNA molecules, an activity that enables high-fidelity single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping (Cas14-DETECTR). Metagenomic data show that multiple CRISPR-Cas14 systems evolved independently and suggest a potential evolutionary origin of single-effector CRISPR-based adaptive immunity.

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