Skip to main content
eScholarship
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Riverside

UC Riverside Previously Published Works bannerUC Riverside

Novel Therapy for Glioblastoma Multiforme by Restoring LRRC4 in Tumor Cells: LRRC4 Inhibits Tumor-Infitrating Regulatory T Cells by Cytokine and Programmed Cell Death 1-Containing Exosomes.

  • Author(s): Li, Peiyao
  • Feng, Jianbo
  • Liu, Yang
  • Liu, Qiang
  • Fan, Li
  • Liu, Qing
  • She, Xiaoling
  • Liu, Changhong
  • Liu, Tao
  • Zhao, Chunhua
  • Wang, Wei
  • Li, Guiyuan
  • Wu, Minghua
  • et al.
Abstract

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a heterogeneous malignant brain tumor, the pathological incidence of which induces the accumulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). As a tumor suppressor gene, LRRC4 is absent in GBM cells. Here, we report that the recovery of LRRC4 in GBM cells inhibited the infiltration of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Ti-Treg), promoted the expansion of tumor-infiltrating effector T (Ti-Teff) cells and CD4+CCR4+ T cells, and enhanced the chemotaxis of CD4+CCR4+ T cells in the GBM immune microenvironment. LRRC4 was not transferred into TILs from GBM cells through exosomes but mainly exerted its inhibiting function on Ti-Treg cell expansion by directly promoting cytokine secretion. GBM cell-derived exosomes (cytokine-free and programmed cell death 1 containing) also contributed to the modulation of LRRC4 on Ti-Treg, Ti-Teff, and CD4+CCR4+ T cells. In GBM cells, LRRC4 directly bound to phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDPK1), phosphorylated IKKβser181, facilitated NF-κB activation, and promoted the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), CCL2, and interferon gamma. In addition, HSP90 was required to maintain the interaction between LRRC4 and PDPK1. However, the inhibition of Ti-Treg cell expansion and promotion of CD4+CCR4+ T cell chemotaxis by LRRC4 could be blocked by anti-IL-6 antibody or anti-CCL2 antibody, respectively. miR-101 is a suppressor gene in GBM. Our previous studies have shown that EZH2, EED, and DNMT3A are direct targets of miR-101. Here, we showed that miR-101 reversed the hypermethylation of the LRRC4 promoter and induced the re-expression of LRRC4 in GBM cells by directly targeting EZH2, EED, and DNMT3A. Our results reveal a novel mechanism underlying GBM microenvironment and provide a new therapeutic strategy using re-expression of LRRC4 in GBM cells to create a permissive intratumoral environment.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View