Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UC San Francisco Previously Published Works bannerUCSF

Use of a high resolution melting (HRM) assay to compare gag, pol, and env diversity in adults with different stages of HIV infection.

  • Author(s): Cousins, Matthew M
  • Laeyendecker, Oliver
  • Beauchamp, Geetha
  • Brookmeyer, Ronald
  • Towler, William I
  • Hudelson, Sarah E
  • Khaki, Leila
  • Koblin, Beryl
  • Chesney, Margaret
  • Moore, Richard D
  • Kelen, Gabor D
  • Coates, Thomas
  • Celum, Connie
  • Buchbinder, Susan P
  • Seage, George R
  • Quinn, Thomas C
  • Donnell, Deborah
  • Eshleman, Susan H
  • et al.


Cross-sectional assessment of HIV incidence relies on laboratory methods to discriminate between recent and non-recent HIV infection. Because HIV diversifies over time in infected individuals, HIV diversity may serve as a biomarker for assessing HIV incidence. We used a high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay to compare HIV diversity in adults with different stages of HIV infection. This assay provides a single numeric HRM score that reflects the level of genetic diversity of HIV in a sample from an infected individual.


HIV diversity was measured in 203 adults: 20 with acute HIV infection (RNA positive, antibody negative), 116 with recent HIV infection (tested a median of 189 days after a previous negative HIV test, range 14-540 days), and 67 with non-recent HIV infection (HIV infected >2 years). HRM scores were generated for two regions in gag, one region in pol, and three regions in env.


Median HRM scores were higher in non-recent infection than in recent infection for all six regions tested. In multivariate models, higher HRM scores in three of the six regions were independently associated with non-recent HIV infection.


The HRM diversity assay provides a simple, scalable method for measuring HIV diversity. HRM scores, which reflect the genetic diversity in a viral population, may be useful biomarkers for evaluation of HIV incidence, particularly if multiple regions of the HIV genome are examined.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View