Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC Irvine

UC Irvine Previously Published Works bannerUC Irvine

Kidney in the net of acute and long-haul coronavirus disease 2019: a potential role for lipid mediators in causing renal injury and fibrosis.


Purpose of review

Severe COVID-19 disease is often complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), which may transition to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Better understanding of underlying mechanisms is important in advancing therapeutic approaches.

Recent findings

SARS-CoV-2-induced endothelial injury initiates platelet activation, platelet-neutrophil partnership and release of neutrophil extracellular traps. The resulting thromboinflammation causes ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to end organs. Severe COVID-19 induces a lipid-mediator storm with massive increases in thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and PGD2, which promote thromboinflammation and apoptosis of renal tubular cells, respectively, and thereby enhance renal fibrosis. COVID-19-associated AKI improves rapidly in the majority. However, 15-30% have protracted renal injury, raising the specter of transition from AKI to CKD.


In COVID-19, the lipid-mediator storm promotes thromboinflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytotoxicity. The thromboxane A2 and PGD2 signaling presents a therapeutic target with potential to mitigate AKI and transition to CKD. Ramatroban, the only dual antagonist of the thromboxane A2/TPr and PGD2/DPr2 signaling could potentially mitigate renal injury in acute and long-haul COVID. Urgent studies targeting the lipid-mediator storm are needed to potentially reduce the heavy burden of kidney disease emerging in the wake of the current pandemic.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View