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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The Kidney Failure Risk Equation for Prediction of Allograft Loss in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

  • Author(s): Chu, Chi D
  • Ku, Elaine
  • Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem
  • McCulloch, Charles E
  • Tuot, Delphine S
  • et al.

Rationale & objective

The Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE) is a simple widely validated prediction model using age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio to predict the risk for end-stage kidney disease. Data are limited for its applicability to kidney transplant recipients.

Study design

Validation study of the KFRE as a post hoc analysis of the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcomes Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial.

Setting & participants

Adult kidney transplant recipients with functioning kidney allografts at least 6 months posttransplantation from 30 centers in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. Participants with estimated glomerular filtration rates < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at study entry were included.


2- and 5-year kidney failure risk predicted by the KFRE using variables at study entry.


Graft loss, defined by initiation of dialysis.

Analytical approach

Discrimination of the KFRE was assessed using C statistics; calibration was assessed by plotting predicted risk against observed cumulative incidence of graft loss.


2,889 participants were included. Within 2 years, 98 participants developed graft loss, 107 participants died with a functioning graft, and 129 participants were lost to follow-up, and by 5 years, 252 had developed graft loss, 265 died with a functioning graft, and 1,543 were lost to follow-up. The KFRE demonstrated accurate calibration and discrimination (C statistic, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.81-0.88] at 2 years and 0.81 [95% CI, 0.78-0.84] at 5 years); performance was similar regardless of donor type (living vs deceased) and graft vintage, with the noted exception of poorer calibration for graft vintage less than 2 years.


Unavailable cause of graft loss.


The KFRE accurately predicted the risk for graft loss among adult kidney transplant recipients with graft vintage longer than 2 years and may be a useful prognostic tool for nephrologists caring for kidney transplant recipients.

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