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Prevalence of and risk factors for trachoma in Kwara state, Nigeria: Results of eight population-based surveys from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

  • Author(s): Alada, Joel J
  • Mpyet, Caleb
  • Florea, Victor V
  • Boisson, Sophie
  • Willis, Rebecca
  • Muhammad, Nasiru
  • Bakhtiari, Ana
  • Adamu, Mohammed D
  • Pavluck, Alexandre L
  • Umar, Murtala M
  • Isiyaku, Sunday
  • William, Adamani
  • Oyinloye, Funso Olu Peter
  • Olobio, Nicholas
  • Solomon, Anthony W
  • Global Trachoma Mapping Project
  • et al.


To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for trachoma in selected local government areas (LGAs) of Kwara State, Nigeria.


Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in eight LGAs of Kwara State using Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) protocols. In each LGA, 25 villages were selected using probability-proportional-to-size sampling; 25 households were selected from each village using compact segment sampling. All residents of selected households aged ≥1 year were examined by GTMP-certified graders for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis using the simplified trachoma grading scheme. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) data were also collected.


A total of 28,506 residents were enumerated in 4769 households across the eight LGAs. TF prevalence in children aged 1-9 years ranged from 0.2% (95% CI 0.0-0.3%) to 1.3% (95% CI 0.7-2.1%), while trichiasis prevalence in persons ≥15 years was <0.2% in each LGA. Access to improved water source was the lowest in Edu (62%), while access to improved sanitation facilities was the lowest in Asa (6%) and the highest in Ilorin East (64%). Children aged 1-4 years had 0.63 (95% CI 0.40-0.99) times lower odds of having TF compared to children aged 5-9 years. Children in households with ≥5 resident 1-9-year-old children had 1.63 (95% CI 1.02-2.60) times greater odds of having TF compared to those in households with <5 resident children.


Trachoma is not a public health problem in Kwara State. Provision of adequate water and sanitation services should be a priority here, as a foundation for the health of the population.

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