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Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19.
- Author(s): Fantozzi, Paolo J;
- Pampena, Emanuele;
- Di Vanna, Domenico;
- Pellegrino, Eugenia;
- Corbi, Daniele;
- Mammucari, Stefano;
- Alessi, Federica;
- Pampena, Riccardo;
- Bertazzoni, Giuliano;
- Minisola, Salvatore;
- Mastroianni, Claudio Maria;
- Polimeni, Antonella;
- Romeo, Umberto;
- Villa, Alessandro
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102721
BackgroundThe novel Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to have profound effect on global health. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and characterize specific symptoms associated with COVID-19.
MethodsThis retrospective study included 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated at the Emergency Department of the Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Rome, Italy between March 6th and April 30th, 2020. In order to assess xerostomia, olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions secondary to COVID-19, a telephone-based a modified survey obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 for taste and smell disorders and the Fox Questionnaire for dry mouth were administered to 111 patients (34%) after discharge between June 4th and June 12th.
ResultsTaste dysfunction was the most common reported symptom (59.5%; n = 66), followed by xerostomia (45.9%; n = 51) and olfactory dysfunctions (41.4%; n = 46). The most severe symptom was olfactory dysfunction with a median severity score of 8.5 (range: 5-10). Overall 74.5% (n = 38) of patients with xerostomia, 78.8% (n = 52) of patients with gustatory dysfunctions and 71.1% (n = 33) of patients with olfactory dysfunctions reported that all symptoms appeared before COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall, the majority of patients reported one symptom only (45.9%, n = 51), 37 (33.3%) reported the association of two symptoms, and 23 (20.7%) patients reported the association of three symptoms at the same time.
ConclusionXerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions may present as a prodromal or as the sole manifestation of COVID-19. Awareness is fundamental to identify COVID-19 patients at an early stage of the disease and limit the spread of the virus.
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