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Mechanoadaptive strain and functional osseointegration of dental implants in rats.

  • Author(s): Wang, B
  • Kim, K
  • Srirangapatanam, S
  • Ustriyana, P
  • Wheelis, SE
  • Fakra, S
  • Kang, M
  • Rodrigues, DC
  • Ho, SP
  • et al.
Abstract

Spatiotemporal implant-bone biomechanics and mechanoadaptive strains in peri-implant tissue are poorly understood. Physical and chemical characteristics of an implant-bone complex (IBC) were correlated in three-dimensional space (along the length and around a dental implant) to gather insights into time related integration of the implant with the cortical portion of a jaw bone in a rat. Rats (N = 9) were divided into three experimental groups with three rats per time point; 3-, 11-, and 24-day. All rats were fed crumbled hard pellets mixed with water (soft-food diet) for the first 3 days followed by a hard-food diet with intact hard-food pellets (groups of 11- and 24-day only). Biomechanics of the IBCs harvested from rats at each time point was evaluated by performing mechanical testing in situ in tandem with X-ray imaging. The effect of physical association (contact area) of a loaded implant with adapting peri-implant tissue, and resulting strain within was mapped by using digital volume correlation (DVC) technique. The IBC stiffness at respective time points was correlated with mechanical strain in peri-implant tissue. Results illustrated that IBC stiffness at 11-day was lower than that observed at 3-day. However, at 24-day, IBC stiffness recovered to that which was observed at 3-day. Correlative microscopy and spectroscopy illustrated that the lower IBC stiffness was constituted by softer and less mineralized peri-implant tissue that contained varying expressions of osteoconductive elements. Lower IBC stiffness observed at 11-day was constituted by less mineralized peri-implant tissue with osteoconductive elements that included phosphorus (P) which was co-localized with higher expression of zinc (Zn), and lower expression of calcium (Ca). Higher IBC stiffness at 24-day was constituted by mineralized peri-implant tissue with higher expressions of osteoconductive elements including Ca and P, and lower expressions of Zn. These spatiotemporal correlative maps of peri-implant tissue architecture, heterogeneous distribution of mineral density, and elemental colocalization underscore mechanoadaptive physicochemical properties of peri-implant tissue that facilitate functional osseointegration of an implant. These results provided insights into 1) plausible "prescription" of mechanical loads as an osteoinductive "therapeutic dose" to encourage osteoconductive elements in the peri-implant tissue that would facilitate functional osseointegration of the implant; 2) a "critical temporal window" between 3 and 11 days, and perhaps it is this acute phase during which key candidate regenerative molecules can be harnessed to accelerate osseointegration of an implant under load.

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