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Dopamine perturbation of gene co-expression networks reveals differential response in schizophrenia for translational machinery.

  • Author(s): Kos, Mark Z
  • Duan, Jubao
  • Sanders, Alan R
  • Blondell, Lucy
  • Drigalenko, Eugene I
  • Carless, Melanie A
  • Gejman, Pablo V
  • Göring, Harald HH
  • MGS
  • et al.
Abstract

The dopaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia (SZ) postulates that positive symptoms of SZ, in particular psychosis, are due to disturbed neurotransmission via the dopamine (DA) receptor D2 (DRD2). However, DA is a reactive molecule that yields various oxidative species, and thus has important non-receptor-mediated effects, with empirical evidence of cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration. Here we examine non-receptor-mediated effects of DA on gene co-expression networks and its potential role in SZ pathology. Transcriptomic profiles were measured by RNA-seq in B-cell transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines from 514 SZ cases and 690 controls, both before and after exposure to DA ex vivo (100 μM). Gene co-expression modules were identified using Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis for both baseline and DA-stimulated conditions, with each module characterized for biological function and tested for association with SZ status and SNPs from a genome-wide panel. We identified seven co-expression modules under baseline, of which six were preserved in DA-stimulated data. One module shows significantly increased association with SZ after DA perturbation (baseline: P = 0.023; DA-stimulated: P = 7.8 × 10-5; ΔAIC = -10.5) and is highly enriched for genes related to ribosomal proteins and translation (FDR = 4 × 10-141), mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and neurodegeneration. SNP association testing revealed tentative QTLs underlying module co-expression, notably at FASTKD2 (top P = 2.8 × 10-6), a gene involved in mitochondrial translation. These results substantiate the role of translational machinery in SZ pathogenesis, providing insights into a possible dopaminergic mechanism disrupting mitochondrial function, and demonstrates the utility of disease-relevant functional perturbation in the study of complex genetic etiologies.

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