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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Submission Guidelines

Who Can Submit

The BRE accepts many types of manuscripts, research papers and theoretical essays. Full-length research papers will present original empirical research that can employ a range of methodologies, including both qualitative and/or quantitative design and analysis (i.e., case study, ethnographic, discourse analytic, longitudinal and cross sectional, experimental, and design based research). We also accept conceptual, speculative, and theoretical works.


The BRE's online submission process requires that manuscripts be submitted in separate stages in order to ensure the anonymity of the review process and to enable appropriate formatting.

  1. To submit a manuscript, authors must first create a password-protected account through the journal's website.
  2. Authors' names and identifying information should not appear on the manuscript itself. The title, abstract, key words, author information, and word count should be input according to the directions on the site.
  3. Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word and RTF files are accepted).
  4. All manuscripts should include a brief abstract (150 words or less) and a list of no more than 5 key words that describe the scope of the work (listed in order of importance).

Please make sure that your contact information is complete and correct, as the editors of the journal may need to contact you regarding your submission. We will never share any of this information without your permission. Be sure to enter your name and affiliation exactly as they should appear on a published article (including appropriate capitalization and punctuation). If you do not wish to enter any institutional affiliation, please enter "none."

Formatting Requirements

Manuscripts must use APA style, following guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition. Please be sure to follow the following guidelines:

  • The main text should be double-spaced and submitted as a stand-alone file (in Microsoft Word or RTF).
  • All manuscript pages shall be arranged and numbered consecutively beginning with the introduction page. The number should appear at least 1 in. (2.54 cm) from the right-hand edge of the page, in the space between the top edge of the paper and the first line of the text.
  • Identify each page with page headers with the two or three words from the title that will identify the manuscript.
  • Write your article in English.
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11 inches.
  • All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1 inch (2.5 cm).
  • Use a single column layout with both left and right margins justified.
  • Please use only Times New Roman font. Font size for the body of the text should be 12 point.
  • If figures are included, use high-resolution figures, preferably encoded as encapsulated PostScript (eps).
  • Copyedit your manuscript.

Additional Recommendations

Colored text: Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc.; however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black-and-white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.


Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be in a font smaller than the font used for main body of text, they should be single-spaced, and there should be a footnote separator rule (line).

Tables, Figures and Images

To the extent possible, tables, figures, and images should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables, figures, or images should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables, figures, or images be in a separate document or file.