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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The Sue & Bill Gross School of Nursing

The UC Irvine Program in Nursing Science was established in 2007.  In 2016, the William and Sue Gross Family Foundation committed $40 million to UC Irvine to establish a nursing school and assist in the construction of a new building. The School of Nursing provides academic and professional education in the discipline of nursing.

The School of Nursing prepares graduates for basic clinical and advanced practice roles. It also prepares them for educational, administrative and research positions across the healthcare delivery system, as well as faculty positions in academic institutions. Degrees offered include B.S., M.S., and PhD in Nursing Science.

Cover page of Media exposure to mass violence events can fuel a cycle of distress.

Media exposure to mass violence events can fuel a cycle of distress.


The established link between trauma-related media exposure and distress may be cyclical: Distress can increase subsequent trauma-related media consumption that promotes increased distress to later events. We tested this hypothesis in a 3-year longitudinal study following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and the 2016 Orlando Pulse nightclub massacre using a national U.S. sample (N = 4165). Data were collected shortly after the bombings, 6 and 24 months post-bombings, and beginning 5 days after the Pulse nightclub massacre (approximately 1 year later; 36 months post-bombings). Bombing-related media exposure predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) 6 months later; PTS predicted worry about future negative events 2 years after the bombings, which predicted increased media consumption and acute stress following the Pulse nightclub massacre 1 year later. Trauma-related media exposure perpetuates a cycle of high distress and media use.

Cover page of Home-based technologies for stroke rehabilitation: A systematic review.

Home-based technologies for stroke rehabilitation: A systematic review.


BACKGROUND:Many forms of home-based technology targeting stroke rehabilitation have been devised, and a number of human factors are important to their application, suggesting the need to examine this information in a comprehensive review. OBJECTIVE:The systematic review aims to synthesize the current knowledge of technologies and human factors in home-based technologies for stroke rehabilitation. METHODS:We conducted a systematic literature search in three electronic databases (IEEE, ACM, PubMed), including secondary citations from the literature search. We included articles that used technological means to help stroke patients conduct rehabilitation at home, reported empirical studies that evaluated the technologies with patients in the home environment, and were published in English. Three authors independently conducted the content analysis of searched articles using a list of interactively defined factors. RESULTS:The search yielded 832 potentially relevant articles, leading to 31 articles that were included for in-depth analysis. The types of technology of reviewed articles included games, telerehabilitation, robotic devices, virtual reality devices, sensors, and tablets. We present the merits and limitations of each type of technology. We then derive two main human factors in designing home-based technologies for stroke rehabilitation: designing for engagement (including external and internal motivation) and designing for the home environment (including understanding the social context, practical challenges, and technical proficiency). CONCLUSION:This systematic review presents an overview of key technologies and human factors for designing home-based technologies for stroke rehabilitation.

Cover page of Early Mortality Among Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis Patients Who Transitioned With an Optimal Outpatient Start.

Early Mortality Among Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis Patients Who Transitioned With an Optimal Outpatient Start.


Introduction:Lower early mortality observed in peritoneal dialysis (PD) compared with hemodialysis (HD) may be due to differential pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) care and the stable setting of transition to dialysis where PD starts are more frequently outpatient rather than during an unscheduled hospitalization. To account for these circumstances, we compared early mortality among a matched cohort of PD and HD patients who had optimal and outpatient starts. Methods:Retrospective cohort study performed among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who transitioned to ESRD from 1 January 2002 to 31 March 2015 with an optimal start in an outpatient setting. Optimal start defined as (i) HD with an arteriovenous graft or fistula or (ii) PD. Propensity score modeling factoring age, race, sex, comorbidities, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) level, and change in eGFR before ESRD was used to create a matched cohort of HD and PD. All-cause mortality was compared at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years posttransition to ESRD. Results:Among 2094 patients (1398 HD and 696 PD) who had optimal outpatient transition to ESRD, 541 HD patients were propensity score-matched to 541 PD patients (caliper distance <0.001). All-cause mortality odds ratios (OR) in PD compared with HD were 0.79 (0.39-1.63), 0.73 (0.43-1.23), and 0.88 (0.62-1.26) for 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively. Time-varying analysis accounting for modality switch (19% PD, 1.9% HD) demonstrated a mortality hazard ratio of 0.94 (0.70-1.24). Conclusion:Among an optimal start CKD cohort that transitioned to ESRD on an outpatient basis, we found no evidence of differences in early mortality between PD and HD.

Cover page of Media Coverage, Forecasted Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Psychological Responses Before and After an Approaching Hurricane.

Media Coverage, Forecasted Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Psychological Responses Before and After an Approaching Hurricane.


Importance:Exposure to disaster-related media coverage is associated with negative mental health outcomes. However, risk factors that render individuals vulnerable to this exposure are unknown. Hurricane-associated media exposure was expected to explain the association between forecasted posttraumatic stress (PTS) and adjustment after the hurricane. Objective:To examine forecasted PTS responses and media coverage as risk factors for negative mental health outcomes in the context of media coverage of an approaching disaster (Hurricane Irma). Design, Setting, and Participants:In a representative probability community sample of 1637 adults from Florida, respondents completed 2 online surveys: the first during the 60 hours before Hurricane Irma's landfall (wave 1; September 8-11, 2017) and the second approximately 1 month later (wave 2; October 12-29, 2017). Poststratification weights were applied to facilitate population-based inferences. Data were analyzed from October 19 through 31, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Posttraumatic stress responses, psychological distress, functional impairment, and worry about future events. Results:The wave 1 survey included 1637 participants (57.0% response rate); 1478 participants were retained at the wave 2 follow-up (90.3% retention) (weighted proportion of women, 62.2%; mean [SD] age, 59.1 [15.2] years). The final weighted sample closely approximated US Census benchmarks for the state of Florida. Data analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that exposure to media coverage of the hurricane (β = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.11-0.31; P < .001) and forecasted PTS (β = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.35-0.52; P < .001) were significantly associated with adjustment after the hurricane. In addition, a significant indirect path from forecasted PTS to adjustment after the storm occurred through exposure to hurricane-related media coverage (β = 0.07; 95% CI, 0.05-0.08; P < .001). Covariates included demographics, mental health diagnoses before the storm, perceived evacuation zone status, and degree of hurricane exposure. Conclusions and Relevance:Results of this study provide a more thorough understanding of how psychological factors before hurricanes are associated with adjustment after hurricanes via media consumption. The findings may also demonstrate the importance of considering prestorm psychological factors when assessing poststorm outcomes, with implications for the media and public health efforts.

Cover page of Exercise capacity in patients with cystic fibrosis vs. non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

Exercise capacity in patients with cystic fibrosis vs. non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.


BACKGROUND:Bronchiectasis is associated with morbidity, low exercise capacity and poor quality of life. There is a paucity of data on exercise capacity using cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Our aim was to compare exercise capacity using CPET in CF and non-CF bronchiectasis patients. METHODS:Cross-sectional retrospective/prospective controlled study assessing CPET using cycle ergometer. Exercise parameters and computed tomography (CT) findings were compared. Results: Hundred two patients with bronchiectasis and 88 controls were evaluated; 49 CF (age 19.7 ± 9.7 y/o, FEV1%predicted 70.9 ± 20.5%) and 53 non-CF (18.6 ± 10.6 y/o, FEV1%predicted 68.7 ± 21.5%). Peak oxygen uptake (peak [Formula: see text]) was similar and relatively preserved in both groups (CF 1915.5±702.0; non-CF 1740±568; control 2111.0±748.3 mL/min). Breathing limitation was found in the two groups vs. control; low breathing reserve (49% in CF; 43% non-CF; 5% control) and increased [Formula: see text] (CF 31.4±4.1, non-CF 31.7±4.1 and control 27.2 ± 2.8). Oxygen pulse was lower in the non-CF; whereas a linear relationship between peak [Formula: see text] vs. FEV1 and vs. FVC was found only for CF. CT score correlated with [Formula: see text] and negatively correlated with [Formula: see text] and post exercise oxygen saturation (SpO2). CONCLUSIONS:CPET parameters may differ between CF and non-CF bronchiectasis. However, normal exercise capacity may be found unrelated to the etiology of the bronchiectasis. Anatomical changes in CT are associated with functional finding of increased [Formula: see text] and decreased SpO2. Larger longitudinal studies including cardiac assessment are needed to better study exercise capacity in different etiologies of non-CF bronchiectasis. TRIAL, registration number: NCT03147651.

Cover page of Development of the Parent Perceptions of Physical Activity Scale (PPPAS): Results from two studies with parents of infants and toddlers.

Development of the Parent Perceptions of Physical Activity Scale (PPPAS): Results from two studies with parents of infants and toddlers.


Physical activity (PA) is important from birth to promote health and motor development. Parents of young children are gatekeepers of opportunities for PA, yet little is known about their perceptions of PA. We describe the development of the Parent Perceptions of Physical Activity Scale (PPPAS) across two studies (N = 241 parents). In Study 1, 143 parents of infants and toddlers recruited from neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and childcare centers completed a 48-item PPPAS. In Study 2, 98 parents of premature infants completed the revised 34-item PPPAS. Study 1 principal components analysis (PCA) identified three components (benefits of, barriers to, and perceived influence on PA), and the scale was reduced. Scores for Perceived Barriers to PA were significantly different between groups, U = 1,108, z = -4.777, p < .0001, with NICU parents reporting more barriers to PA than childcare parents. In Study 2, PCA revealed the same components, and the scale was further reduced to 25 items. Three subscales measuring perceived benefits of, barriers to, and influence over an infant's PA produced Cronbach's alphas of .93, .85, .81, respectively. Results demonstrated sufficient construct validity and internal consistency of PPPAS scores, supporting its use in future PA research.

Cover page of Four Months of a School-Based Exercise Program Improved Aerobic Fitness and Clinical Outcomes in a Low-SES Population of Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Children With Asthma

Four Months of a School-Based Exercise Program Improved Aerobic Fitness and Clinical Outcomes in a Low-SES Population of Normal Weight and Overweight/Obese Children With Asthma


Introduction: Fitness can improve asthma management. However, children from disadvantaged and minority communities generally engage less in physical activity, and have increased obesity and asthma disease burden. The goal of this pilot study is to evaluate (1) the feasibility of an exercise intervention program in a school-based setting (attendance and fitness improvement) and (2) the effect of the intervention on fitness, asthma, and clinical outcomes in normal weight and overweight/obese children with asthma from low-SES population. Materials and Methods: Nineteen children, ages 6-13 years, from two elementary schools in Santa Ana, CA, a population with high percentage of Hispanic and low socioeconomic status, participated. Training sessions occurred at the schools during afterschool hours (3 sessions weekly × 4 months) and included mainly aerobic age-appropriate activities/games and a small component of muscle strength. Before and after the intervention, evaluations included pulmonary function testing, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (peak V˙ O2), assessments of habitual physical activity, body composition (DXA), asthma questionnaires, and blood (cardiometabolic risk factors). Results: Seventeen of 19 participants completed the study. Adherence to the program was 85%25. Based on BMI %25ile, 11 of the participants were overweight/obese and 8 were normal weight. Ten participants had persistent asthma and 9 children had intermittent asthma. Training was effective as peak V˙ O2 improved significantly (8.1%25, SD ± 10.1). There was no significant change in BMI %25ile but a significant improvement in lean body mass (1%25, SD ± 2.0) and decrease in body fat (1.9%25, SD ± 4.6). Asthma quality of life outcomes improved following the intervention in symptoms, emotional function, and overall. There was no change in asthma control or pulmonary function. Five of 10 participants with persistent asthma decreased their maintenance medications. Lipid levels did not change except HDL levels increased (46.1 ± 8.4 mg/dL to 49.5 ± 10.4 mg/dL, p = 0.04). Discussion: A school-based exercise intervention program designed specifically for children with asthma for a predominantly economically disadvantaged and minority population was feasible with good adherence to the program and substantial engagement from the schools, families and participants. The exercise intervention was effective with improvement in aerobic fitness, body composition, asthma quality of life, and lipid outcomes, setting the stage for a larger multicenter trial designed to study exercise as an adjunct medicine in children with asthma.