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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The Sue & Bill Gross School of Nursing

The UC Irvine Program in Nursing Science was established in 2007.  In 2016, the William and Sue Gross Family Foundation committed $40 million to UC Irvine to establish a nursing school and assist in the construction of a new building. The School of Nursing provides academic and professional education in the discipline of nursing.

The School of Nursing prepares graduates for basic clinical and advanced practice roles. It also prepares them for educational, administrative and research positions across the healthcare delivery system, as well as faculty positions in academic institutions. Degrees offered include B.S., M.S., and PhD in Nursing Science.

Cover page of Digital Health-Enabled Community-Centered Care: Scalable Model to Empower Future Community Health Workers Using Human-in-the-Loop Artificial Intelligence.

Digital Health-Enabled Community-Centered Care: Scalable Model to Empower Future Community Health Workers Using Human-in-the-Loop Artificial Intelligence.

(2022)

Digital health-enabled community-centered care (D-CCC) represents a pioneering vision for the future of community-centered care. D-CCC aims to support and amplify the digital footprint of community health workers through a novel artificial intelligence-enabled closed-loop digital health platform designed for, and with, community health workers. By focusing digitalization at the level of the community health worker, D-CCC enables more timely, supported, and individualized community health worker-delivered interventions. D-CCC has the potential to move community-centered care into an expanded, digitally interconnected, and collaborative community-centered health and social care ecosystem of the future, grounded within a robust and digitally empowered community health workforce.

Cover page of Antihistamines for Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Antihistamines for Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

(2022)

Postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV2 (PASC) infection is an emerging global health crisis, variably affecting millions worldwide. PASC has no established treatment. We describe 2 cases of PASC in response to opportune administration of over-the-counter antihistamines, with significant improvement in symptoms and ability to perform activities of daily living. Future studies are warranted to understand the potential role of histamine in the pathogenesis of PASC and explore the clinical benefits of antihistamines in the treatment of PASC.

Cover page of A Micro-Level Analysis of Physiological Responses to COVID-19: Continuous Monitoring of Pregnant Women in California.

A Micro-Level Analysis of Physiological Responses to COVID-19: Continuous Monitoring of Pregnant Women in California.

(2022)

Continuous monitoring of perinatal women in a descriptive case study allowed us the opportunity to examine the time during which the COVID-19 infection led to physiological changes in two low-income pregnant women. An important component of this study was the use of a wearable sensor device, the Oura ring, to monitor and record vital physiological parameters during sleep. Two women in their second and third trimesters, respectively, were selected based on a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. Both women were tested using the polymerase chain reaction method to confirm the presence of the virus during which time we were able to collect these physiological data. In both cases, we observed 3-6 days of peak physiological changes in resting heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and respiratory rate (RR), as well as sleep surrounding the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. The pregnant woman in her third trimester showed a significant increase in resting HR (p = 0.006) and RR (p = 0.048), and a significant decrease in HRV (p = 0.027) and deep sleep duration (p = 0.029). She reported experiencing moderate COVID-19 symptoms and did not require hospitalization. At 38 weeks of gestation, she had a normal delivery and gave birth to a healthy infant. The participant in her second trimester showed similar physiological changes during the 3-day peak period. Importantly, these changes appeared to return to the pre-peak levels. Common symptoms reported by both cases included loss of smell and nasal congestion, with one losing her sense of taste. Results suggest the potential to use the changes in cardiorespiratory responses and sleep for real-time monitoring of health and well-being during pregnancy.

Outcomes of COVID-19 adults managed in an outpatient versus hospital setting.

(2022)

Introduction

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread globally and as of February 4, 2021, there are more than 26 million confirmed cases and more than 440,000 deaths in the United States (US). A top priority of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 adults who were managed in an outpatient setting compared to patients who required hospitalization at US academic centers.

Methods

Using the Vizient clinical database, Discharge records of adults with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and January 31, 2021 were reviewed. Outcome measures included demographics, characteristics, rate of hospitalization, and mortality, and data were analyzed based on inpatient versus outpatient management.

Results

Among COVID-19 adults, 1,360,078 patients were managed in an outpatient setting while 545,635 patients required hospitalization. Compared to hospitalized COVID-19 adults, COVID-19 adults who were managed in an outpatient setting were more likely to be female (56.1% vs 47.5%, p <0.001), white (57.7% vs 54.8%, p <0.001), within younger age group of 18-50 years (p<0.001) and have lower rate of comorbidities. Mortality was significantly lower in outpatient group compared to hospitalized group (0.2% vs 12.2%, respectively, p <0.01%). For outpatient group, mortality increased with increasing age group: 0.02% (52 of 295,112) for patients 18-30 years and 1.2% (1,373 of 117,866) for patients >75 years. The rate of hospitalization was lowest for age group 18-30 years at 10.6% (35,607 of 330,719) and highest for age group >75 years at 56.1% (150,381 of 268,247).

Conclusion

This analysis of US academic centers showed that 28.6% of COVID-19 adults who sought care at one of the hospitals reporting data to the Vizient clinical database required in-patient treatment. The rate of hospitalization in our study was lowest for the youngest age group of 18-30 years and highest for age group >75 years. Beside older age, other factors associated with outpatient management included female gender, white race, and having commercial insurance.

Evaluating the 0-10 Point Pain Scale on Adolescent Opioid Use in US Emergency Departments.

(2021)

To evaluate trends in national emergency department (ED) adolescent opioid use in relation to reported pain scores. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis on National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data was conducted on ED visits involving patients aged 11-21 from 2008-2017. Crude observational counts were extrapolated to weighted estimates matching total population counts. Multivariate models were used to evaluate the role of a pain score in the reported use of opioids. Anchors for pain scores were 0 (no pain) and 10 (worst pain imaginable). 31,355 observations were captured, which were extrapolated by the NHAMCS to represent 162,515,943 visits nationwide. Overall, patients with a score of 10 were 1.35 times more likely to receive an opioid than patients scoring a 9, 41.7% (CI95 39.7-43.8%) and 31.0% (CI95 28.8-33.3%), respectively. Opioid use was significantly different between traditional pain score cutoffs of mild (1-3) and moderate pain (4-6), where scores of 4 were 1.76 times more likely to receive an opioid than scores of 3, 15.5% (CI95 13.7-17.3%) and 8.8% (CI95 7.1-10.6%), respectively. Scores of 7 were 1.33 times more likely to receive opioids than scores of 6, 24.7% (CI95 23.0-26.3%) and 18.5% (CI95 16.9-20.0%), respectively. Fractures had the highest likelihood of receiving an opioid, as 49.2% of adolescents with a fracture received an opioid (CI95 46.4-51.9%). Within this subgroup, only adolescents reporting a fracture pain score of 10 had significantly higher opioid use than adjacent pain scores, where fracture patients scoring a 10 were 1.4 times more likely to use opioids than those scoring 9, 82.2% (CI95 76.1-88.4%) and 59.8% (CI95 49.0-70.5%), respectively. While some guidelines in the adult population have revised cut-offs and groupings of the traditional tiers on a 0-10 point pain scale, the adolescent population may also require further examination to potentially warrant a similar adjustment.

Factors associated with lack of improvement in submaximal exercise capacity of patients with heart failure.

(2021)

Aims

Improvement in exercise capacity is the primary goal of physical activity programmes for patients with heart failure (HF). Although activity programmes are effective for some patients, others do not benefit. Identifying factors related to a lack of improvement in submaximal exercise capacity may help us interpret findings and design new interventions. The aim of this study is to identify factors contributing to a lack of improvement in submaximal exercise capacity 3 months after physical activity advice or an exergame intervention in patients with HF. Additionally, we aimed to assess differences in lack of improvement in submaximal exercise capacity of patients whose baseline exercise capacity predicted a worse compared with better prognosis of HF.

Methods and results

This secondary analysis of the HF-Wii study analysed baseline and 3 month data of the 6 min walk test (6MWT) from 480 patients (mean age 67 years, 72% male). Data were analysed separately in patients with a pre-defined 6 min walking distance at baseline of <300 m (n = 79) and ≥300 m (n = 401). Among patients with a baseline 6MWT of ≥300 m, 18% had deteriorated submaximal exercise capacity. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, lower baseline levels of self-reported physical activity [odds ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.60-0.97], lower baseline levels of cognitive function (OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.79-0.96) were significantly associated with lack of improvement in exercise capacity at 3 months. Not randomized to exergaming (OR = 0.63, 95%CI = 0.37-1.09) was likely (P = 0.097) to be associated with lack of improvement in exercise capacity at 3 months. Among the 79 patients with baseline 6MWT of <300 m, 41% (n = 32) did not improve 6MWT distance at 3 months. Independent predictors for the lack of improvement for 6MWT were New York Heart Association class III/IV (OR = 4.68, 95%CI = 1.08-20.35), higher levels of serum creatinine (OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 1.003-1.03), lower cognitive function (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.75-0.99), and fewer anxiety symptoms (OR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.72-0.98).

Conclusions

Lower self-reported physical activity and cognitive impairment predict lack of improvement in submaximal exercise capacity in HF patients. Patients who have a worse prognosis (score <300 m at the 6MWT) are often frail and gain less in exercise capacity. These patients may need a more comprehensive approach to have an effect on exercise capacity, including an individually tailored exercise programme with aerobic exercise (if tolerated) and strength exercises.

Exploring factors related to non-adherence to exergaming in patients with chronic heart failure.

(2021)

Aims

This study aimed to explore factors related to non-adherence to exergaming in patients with heart failure.

Methods and results

Data from patients in the exergame group in the HF-Wii trial were used. Adherence to exergaming was defined as playing 80% or more of the recommended time. Data on adherence and reasons for not exergaming at all were collected during phone calls after 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Logistic regression was performed between patients who were adherent and patients who were non-adherent. Secondly, a logistic regression was performed between patients who not exergamed at all and patients who were adherent to exergaming. Finally, we analysed the reasons for not exergaming at all with manifest content analysis. Almost half of the patients were adherent to exergaming. Patients who were adherent had lower social motivation [odds ratio (OR) 0.072; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.054-0.095], fewer sleeping problems (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.76-0.092), and higher exercise capacity (OR 1.003; 95% CI 1.001-1.005) compared with patients who were non-adherent. Patients who not exergamed at all had lower cognition (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.06-1.31) and more often suffered from peripheral vascular disease (OR 3.74; 95% CI 1.01-13.83) compared with patients who were adherent to exergaming. Patients most often cited disease-specific barriers as a reason for not exergaming at all.

Conclusions

A thorough baseline assessment of physical function and cognition is needed before beginning an exergame intervention. It is important to offer the possibility to exergame with others, to be able to adapt the intensity of physical activity.

A Technology-Based Pregnancy Health and Wellness Intervention (Two Happy Hearts): Case Study.

(2021)

Background

The physical and emotional well-being of women is critical for healthy pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Two Happy Hearts intervention is a personalized mind-body program coached by community health workers that includes monitoring and reflecting on personal health, as well as practicing stress management strategies such as mindful breathing and movement.

Objective

The aims of this study are to (1) test the daily use of a wearable device to objectively measure physical and emotional well-being along with subjective assessments during pregnancy, and (2) explore the user's engagement with the Two Happy Hearts intervention prototype, as well as understand their experiences with various intervention components.

Methods

A case study with a mixed design was used. We recruited a 29-year-old woman at 33 weeks of gestation with a singleton pregnancy. She had no medical complications or physical restrictions, and she was enrolled in the Medi-Cal public health insurance plan. The participant engaged in the Two Happy Hearts intervention prototype from her third trimester until delivery. The Oura smart ring was used to continuously monitor objective physical and emotional states, such as resting heart rate, resting heart rate variability, sleep, and physical activity. In addition, the participant self-reported her physical and emotional health using the Two Happy Hearts mobile app-based 24-hour recall surveys (sleep quality and level of physical activity) and ecological momentary assessment (positive and negative emotions), as well as the Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Engagement with the Two Happy Hearts intervention was recorded via both the smart ring and phone app, and user experiences were collected via Research Electronic Data Capture satisfaction surveys. Objective data from the Oura ring and subjective data on physical and emotional health were described. Regression plots and Pearson correlations between the objective and subjective data were presented, and content analysis was performed for the qualitative data.

Results

Decreased resting heart rate was significantly correlated with increased heart rate variability (r=-0.92, P<.001). We found significant associations between self-reported responses and Oura ring measures: (1) positive emotions and heart rate variability (r=0.54, P<.001), (2) sleep quality and sleep score (r=0.52, P<.001), and (3) physical activity and step count (r=0.77, P<.001). In addition, deep sleep appeared to increase as light and rapid eye movement sleep decreased. The psychological measures of stress, depression, and anxiety appeared to decrease from baseline to post intervention. Furthermore, the participant had a high completion rate of the components of the Two Happy Hearts intervention prototype and shared several positive experiences, such as an increased self-efficacy and a normal delivery.

Conclusions

The Two Happy Hearts intervention prototype shows promise for potential use by underserved pregnant women.

Cover page of A study protocol to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the Clinical Nurse Leader Care Model in improving quality and safety outcomes.

A study protocol to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the Clinical Nurse Leader Care Model in improving quality and safety outcomes.

(2021)

Aims

Patients are harmed or die every year because of unsafe, inappropriate or inadequate healthcare delivery. Registered Nurses are a recognized patient safety strategy. However, variability in research findings indicate the relationship is not as simple as "more nurses=better outcomes." Hence, currently there exists no evidence-based frontline nursing care model. One emerging model is the Clinical Nurse Leader care model.

Design

This Hybrid Type II Implementation-Effectiveness study will evaluate the effect of the care model on standardized quality and safety outcomes and identify implementation characteristics that are sufficient and necessary to achieve outcomes.

Methods

This study leverages a natural experiment in 66 clinical care units in nine hospitals across five states in the United States that have implemented the Clinical Nurse Leader care model.

Results

Findings will elucidate Registered Nurse's mechanisms of action as organized into frontline models of care and link actions to improved care quality and safety.

Cover page of Curating the Digital Mental Health Landscape With a Guide to Behavioral Health Apps: A County-Driven Resource.

Curating the Digital Mental Health Landscape With a Guide to Behavioral Health Apps: A County-Driven Resource.

(2021)

With more than 10,000 mental health apps available, consumers and clinicians who want to adopt such tools can be overwhelmed by the multitude of options and lack of clear evaluative standards. Despite the increasing prevalence of curated lists, or app guides, challenges remain. Organizations providing mental health services to consumers have an opportunity to address these challenges by producing guides that meet relevant standards of quality and are tailored to local needs. This column summarizes an example of the collaborative process of app guide development in a publicly funded mental health service context and highlights opportunities and barriers identified through the process.