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Open Access Publications from the University of California

The UCLA Library Prize for Undergraduate Research recognizes and honors excellence in undergraduate research at UCLA.

The inspiration for the UCLA Library Prize for Undergraduate Research came from Ruth Simon, lover of books and libraries.

Simon earned her BA in English at UCLA and served as UCLA's campus counsel for many years until her retirement in 2003. Her many memories of her college years include countless hours spent in the undergraduate library, studying for classes and exams or enjoying classic works of English literature.

Guided by her passion for reading and research and wishing to share her love of libraries, Simon established the Ruth Simon Library Prize for Undergraduate Research, the first endowment of its kind at UCLA, to inspire and reward UCLA undergraduates for outstanding library research now and for generations yet to come.

For more information about the Library Prize, including submission guidelines, please visit http://library.ucla.edu/support/support-students/showcasing-student-achievement/library-prize-undergraduate-research.

Cover page of Bringing Early Modern England to Life

Bringing Early Modern England to Life

(2019)

The early modern period in England (c. 1500-1800) is often best remembered for dramatic developments that transformed the political, religious and economic life of the country. Henry VIII’s rejection of the papacy in the 1530s severed the English church and its worshippers from the wider Catholic community. In 1649, the execution of Charles I at the end of the Civil War marked the beginning of a transformation in the relationship between king and people. That relationship continued to evolve and in 1689, it was recast in the Bill of Rights, which subordinated the Crown to the people. The economy thrived through much of the period and by the eighteenth century England was both a leader in European and in the overseas colonies for which so many nations vied. This exhibit seeks to explore the lives of ordinary people who lived through these dramatic events. While such developments were important, they did not always gure in the everyday lives of those who were not members of the political nation. For them, concerns about their work, families, education and spiritual lives loomed larger than the activities and debates taking place at Westminster. The objects here reveal the concerns, desires and fears of some of the English people during the early modern era and how they sought to manage them--not always successfully.

Cover page of Dams, Development and the Future of Sino-Indian Hydro- Politics

Dams, Development and the Future of Sino-Indian Hydro- Politics

(2019)

China and India's miraculous economic growth has undoubtedly improved the livelihoods of millions of people, but it has also increased demand for already scarce water resources in the region. The hydro-political relationship between the two countries is particularly interesting due to China’s hold of the Tibetan Plateau which houses the heads of most major rivers in the region. China’s general unwillingness to cooperate with their downstream neighbors has become cause for concern, especially for India’s growing economy and population. This study analyzes the quantitative economic and resource consumption changes of China and India since 1980 to demonstrate the sharp changes linked to export-oriented economic development. These data are supported by a holistic analysis of key domestic policy changes as well as current domestic water-related issues in order to fully grasp the current circumstances and hypothesize the potential for escalation to conflict. Using Feron’s rationalist framework, I analyze the key sources of conflict as credibility problems, incomplete information and the indivisible nature of water. These three issues work cyclically and feed into one another, any solution for the issue would have to acknowledge all three elements. This study suggests that domestic water efficiency improvements such as increased water-recycling and smarter irrigation infrastructure coupled with bilateral solutions like joint hydraulic projects on the Brahmaputra and codified data sharing agreements can foment cooperation between the nations. This thesis ultimately establishes a link between the globalization-led development in the region and India and China’s changing hydraulic needs in order to determine the actions necessary to avoid international conflict and ensure long-term water and energy security for both states.

Cover page of The Far-Reaching Influence of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra

The Far-Reaching Influence of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra

(2019)

The Far-Reaching Influence of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra is a visual, online research project that explores some of the various venues at which the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra performed since its inception. The project begins with the formation of the orchestra as the Atlanta Youth Symphony and follows its growth under two different conductors, Henry Sopkin followed by Robert Shaw. The project then details the histories of 12 separate concert sites for the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, including the sites used as the orchestra’s homes in Atlanta. Further, the project includes various primary resources that aid in providing a clear and concise history of each concert site. The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra’s influence both nationally, and internationally, is supported by the prestigious venues at which they performed, such as the Konzerthaus Berlin on a European tour, the Kennedy Center at president-elect Jimmy Carter’s inauguration concert, the world-renowned Carnegie Hall, or at home in the Atlanta Memorial Arts Center.

Cover page of You Gotta Fight For Your Right

You Gotta Fight For Your Right

(2019)

You Gotta Fight For Your Right is a digital story map examining the sites of political protests in the greater Georgia area between 1954 and 1974. We chose to map the sites of prevalent political unrest during this time period in order to examine the causes and historical impacts of political protests in relation to their historically significant locations.

Cover page of  “The post-Cold War issues of the space conquest: Thoughts on the future of an increasingly attractive space”

 “The post-Cold War issues of the space conquest: Thoughts on the future of an increasingly attractive space”

(2019)

Space has fascinated humans for centuries. However, a new era has begun sixty years ago when the first engine was launched into outer space, the Russian satellite Sputnik. This event participated to trigger a space race between the two leading countries of the time, opposed in the Cold War, the United-States and the USSR. It had direct consequences on international relations at the time and was also at the origin of significant scientific improvements in the space field. This paper aims to analyze how space activities have developed and changed after the end of the Cold War. While competition dominated space and its few governmental actors until the end of the 1980’s, a new model of international cooperation has appeared subsequently and continues to govern most of space activities today. The variety of actors operating in the space field has also considerably increased. On the one hand, developing countries have tried more and more to play a significant role, using space as a means to exist on the international stage. On the other hand, the role of the private sector has also risen a lot. These new actors may constitute a threat for the global cooperation that has been set up after the Cold War, as well as for the future of space. Over the years, an international and national regulation has developed to frame and control space activities, with the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs as a leading actor. Today, space law seems to suffer legal gaps that need to be addressed to ensure the safety of all. In addition, new challenges have arisen with the increasing number of space actors, such as space debris or space tourism. In order to anticipate potential irreversible damages in outer space, as has happened on Earth, it is now crucial to take seriously these legal needs.

Cover page of “Numerical determination of Chern numbers and critical exponents for Anderson localization in tight-binding and related models”

“Numerical determination of Chern numbers and critical exponents for Anderson localization in tight-binding and related models”

(2019)

Computational modules were developed to numerically determine electronic band structures, berry curvatures, Chern numbers, localization lengths, and critical exponents for tight- binding and related models. These modules were applied to a variety tight-binding and related models including the Hofstadter Model, Anderson Model, and the Chalker- Coddington model. When analytic solutions were available, numeric energy bands agreed with analytic solutions to within machine precision. In addition Chern numbers for well known models were reproduced, and localization lengths and critical exponents agreed with values in the literature.

Cover page of Fleeing the Closet: Inclusive Refugee Programs and LGBTQ Policy in the Asylum Seeking Process

Fleeing the Closet: Inclusive Refugee Programs and LGBTQ Policy in the Asylum Seeking Process

(2018)

Working AbstractIn 1951, The United Nations Refugee Convention established asylum for those with a “well-founded fear of being persecuted” based on membership in a “particular social group”, yet many countries today continue to actively discriminate against individuals seeking asylum on the basis of their sexual orientation and/or gender identities. In an effort to distance themselves from the discrimination and criminalization that exists in their home countries, many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-identifying individuals seek safety as asylees abroad. This research examines the extent to which accepting asylum protocol as well as protections and rights offered to sexual and/or gender minorities impact the movement of LGBTQ asylees. By analyzing the application procedure and programs offered to a state’s incoming refugee population in conjunction with the antidiscrimination legislation and freedoms afforded to that state’s LGBTQ populations throughout 40 countries around the world, this paper finds that heightened asylum protocol rather than inclusive LGBTQ legal rights influences the resettlement of LGBTQ asylees. Introduction and Background Informatio

Cover page of The Academic Goose Chase: Swift’s Tale of a Tub Between Print and Manuscript

The Academic Goose Chase: Swift’s Tale of a Tub Between Print and Manuscript

(2018)

Editors of Jonathan Swift’s A Tale of a Tub are generally divided into two groups: those who take the first edition (1704) as the definitive edition of the Tale and those who take the fifth. Those who advocate use of the first edition typically claim the first edition of a book is nearly always closer to authorial intention and, in the case of the Tale, scholars claim later editions of the text are mere bastardizations or obfuscations of the original. This paper demonstrates that an analysis of the text itself combined with knowledge of both the publication history of the Tale and the nature of contemporary manuscript circulation reveal that one of the best reasons for using the fifth edition of the Tale of a Tub is not that it is a “perfect” copy of the work somehow unadulterated by the ill nature of eighteenth-century print culture or even because it is closer to authorial intention but rather because A Tale of a Tub is a surreptitious text at heart and its unwieldy form is the essence of its brilliance.

Cover page of Health as a Right versus a Privilege in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan: What is an Ideal Health Insurance System?

Health as a Right versus a Privilege in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan: What is an Ideal Health Insurance System?

(2018)

Abstract: The concept of "right versus privilege" is inherent in a nation's system for funding health care. Privatized health care, such as that in the U.S., promotes an inequitable distribution of healthcare resources that leave several populations without access to health care needs. Completely nationalized medical care, like that found in the United Kingdom, provides more broad-based and equitable care but access to specialized health care on a timely basis is difficult, and there is little incentive to offer more costly technological diagnostic or preventative advancements. Japan, which has a hybrid public/private healthcare system, appears to offer the best model for equitable and advanced medical treatments, and clearly provides the best outcomes. However, the growing elderly population places an extreme burden on all three countries, and Japan's health care system, due to its culture, is more vulnerable to this change in population demographics. Ideally, a national healthcare system has a moral obligation to provide for the countries' citizens, and this can best be accomplished by analyzing the approaches of three different countries (the privatized U.S., the socialized U.K., and the hybrid Japan) to create a health insurance system that is equitable, not financially burdensome, and which promotes the best outcomes for all its patients.

Cover page of Postoperative hearing preservation in patients undergoing retrosigmoid craniotomy for resection of vestibular schwannomas: A meta-analysis of 1,249 patients

Postoperative hearing preservation in patients undergoing retrosigmoid craniotomy for resection of vestibular schwannomas: A meta-analysis of 1,249 patients

(2018)

Objective To investigate the estimated hearing preservation rates in patients with sporadic VS (vestibular schwannomas) after RS (retrosigmoid) surgery through a meta-analysis based on the published hearing outcomes within the current literature.

Data Sources Both the PubMed and Cochrane databases were used to identify retrospective and prospective studies which involved hearing outcomes of VS patients who underwent the RS approach. The final search was performed on November 11, 2017. The first and third authors independently reviewed the aggregated articles, and final decisions of study inclusion were dependent on consensus.

Study Selection Of 313 articles, 16 studies (5.1%) met eligibility criteria. Together, these 16 studies comprised a total of 1,249 patients with serviceable preoperative hearing in the affected ear, from whom postoperative hearing preservation could be evaluated.

Data Extraction Both preoperative and postoperative hearing grades were extracted to determine the hearing preservation rate presented in the group of patients in each article. Additionally, demographics regarding gender, age, mean tumor size, and mean FU (follow-up) time pertaining to the patients in each article were extracted as well.

Data Synthesis Study heterogeneity was quantified through computation of t2,Q, and I2 statistics. A Wald-type Q statistic was used to assess statistical significance of study heterogeneity. Assessment of study bias was performed using standard funnel plot analysis and an Egger’s test for funnel plot asymmetry. Significant cross-study heterogeneity was found, with rates of hearing preservation ranging from 12-79% across studies. Aggregate hearing preservation was 23% under a fixed effects model and 37% allowing for random study effects. Clear systematic bias was also apparent, with disproportionate numbers of (mostly smaller) studies reporting hearing preservation rates markedly higher than the aggregate estimates (P< 0.0001). As expected, rates of hearing preservation were also strongly dependent on preoperative tumor size, with rates of 59%, 37%, and 11% observed for intracanalicular, small, and large (>20 mm) tumors, respectively.

Conclusions Hearing preservation rates are likely dependent on multiple factors and tumor size has a strong effect. It is critical to discuss the patient’s expectations for hearing preservation when deciding on treatment plans for VS.