Volume 26, Issue 1, 2006
Langdon was a talented and generous mentor to her students, as well as to students from elsewhere who crossed her doorstep. Her door was always open to them, and she never gave the impression that she needed to be doing something else other than talking to them. Her students were welcome in her home, and she and her husband and daughter maintained lifelong friendships with them. It was through her leadership that the Yuman languages became one of the best-studied language families in California, with students doing dissertations and other research on the various languages in that family under Margaret's tutelage, and later with the guidance of her own students turned professors. Langdon's students have become professors in most of the major universities of the West. Langdon is survived by her daughter, Loni Langdon of Bishop, California, by a sister in Belgium, and by the many students and colleagues who held her beloved.
Lawton's colleagues on the Malki Museum Editorial Board have fond memories of working with him. He was always there to advise, encourage, and collaborate, and was known for pursuing complicated issues (such as those involving race, rank, or profession) in ways that helped others. He will be sorely missed by family and friends; the entire Malki community was indeed fortunate to have received so much of his thoughtful attention and advice over the years. Lawton is survived by his wife Georgeann; his sons, George, Daniel, Jonathan, and Richard; his daughter, Deborah Golino; his sister, Jean Belle Hamner; and six grandchildren.
A rich archaeological record spanning much of the Holocene exists in the Coso Range of southeastern California. An archaeological survey of over 2,564 acres was focused within the pinyon-juniper zone of these uplands at Naval Air Weapons Station, China Lake. In total, 184 prehistoric sites were recorded, and are used here to evaluate a series of alternative models regarding the origins of intensive pinyon nut use in the southwestern Great Basin. These findings indicate that fully-ripened nuts were probably used on a regular basis deep into antiquity, but the more intensive(and expensive) harvest of green-cone pinyon nuts largely occurred after 1,350 B.P This conclusion has important implications for interpreting prehistoric land-use patterns in the region, and supports earlier hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for the spread of Numic populations during the later phases of prehistory.
Genetics, Linguistics, and Prehistoric Migrations: An Analysis of California Indian Mitochondrial DNA Lineages
The advent of mitochondrial DNA analysis makes possible the study of past migrations among California Indians through the study of genetic similarities and differences. Four scenarios of language change correlate with observable genetic patterns: (1) initial colonization followed by gradual changes due to isolation; (2) population replacement; (3) elite dominance; and (4) intermarriage between adjacent groups. A total of 126 mtDNA samples were provided by contemporary California Indian descendants whose maternal lineages were traced back to original eighteenth and nineteenth century sociolinguistic groups using mission records and other ethnohistoric sources. In particular, those groups belonging to three language families (Chumashan, Uto-Aztecan, and Yokutsan) encompassed enough samples to make meaningful comparisons. The four predominant mtDNA haplogroups found among American Indians (A, B, C, and D) were distributed differently among populations belonging to these language families in California. Examination of the distribution of particular haplotypes within each haplogroup further elucidated the separate population histories of these three language families. The expansions of Yokutsan and Uto-Aztecan groups into their respective homelands are evident in the structure of genetic relationships within haplogroup diagrams. The ancient presence of Chumashan peoples in the Santa Barbara Channel region can be inferred from the presence of a number of haplotypes arrayed along a chain-like branch derived from the founding haplotype within Haplogroup A. A distinctive Haplogroup D sequence, represented by four Chumash lineages, belongs to a rare subgroup, occurring primarily among groups scattered along the Pacific coast of North and South America. This distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that an early coastal expansion occurred during the initial peopling of the Americas.
In this paper I present the first radiocarbon dates for Anacapa Island, including dates for six sites. In synthesizing these radiocarbon dates, I also briefly summarize some of the lunited artifactual and faunal data from the island. These data help bring the archaeology of Anacapa out of the shadows and uito the context of larger southern California coastal prehistory. I begin with a brief discussion of Anacapa Island environments and previous archaeological research to contextuaUze my analysis.
The Early California Population Project is a database that has been developed by the Henry E. Huntington Library over the course of eight years. The database, which is now accessible online, makes available all of the information contained in the California mission registers, records that are of unique and vital importance to the study of California, the American Southwest, and colonial America. The vast potential of these records has in many ways remained unexploited, since they are scattered across California and are often too old and brittle to handle. Microfilm copies of the registers exist in archives but are of poor quality and often hard to locate. Lacking adequate staff and the resources to facilitate genealogical and historical research, libraries, archives, missions, and dioceses each year turn away countless individuals who are eager to study early California's Indian, Hispanic, and Anglo-American inhabitants. The Early California Population Project was created as a solution to the problem of access, and is a significant new resource for the study of California before 1850.
In addition to assessing site chronology, we were interested in examining an open site in a region where caves and rockshelters such as those cited above have received the bulk of archaeological attention. The function of the site, therefore, including its role in the regional subsistence-settlement system, was of interest, as was its role as a (presumably) non-agricultural site during the Fremont period. Although it is clearly located on the extreme western periphery of the Fremont area, it seemed possible to explore this topic, since Johnson and Arkush (1997) recovered Fremont ceramics from the site.
Lost and Found
This installment of Lost and Found offers a fascinating glimpse into the medical beliefs and practices of three very different nineteenth-century California communities, written by a knowledgeable pioneer physician, Cephas Little Bard. Dr. Bard was born in Pennsylvania in 1843, and served as an army physician during the Civil War; he moved to Ventura in 1868, where he practiced medicine until his death in 1902. He seems to have been an avid collector of Indian artifacts, and was regarded by his contemporaries as an authority on California Indians. The paper presented here was originally given as an address in San Diego in 1894 on the occasion of Bard's retirement as president of the Southern California Medical Society. It was published first in the Southern California Practitioner [9(8):287-313,1894], and was then privately printed in a limited edition as a pamphlet. In 1930, Bard's paper was reprinted, slightly edited, in Touring Topics [January, 1930, pp. 20-30] as "Medicine and Surgery Among the First Californians." Most of the plants mentioned by Bard are discussed in detail in Jan Timbrook's forthcoming book, Chumash Ethnobotany.
Food in California Indian Culture Ira Jacknis (Ed.) Berkeley: Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology, 2004, (Classics in California Anthropology), 490 pages, 72 photographs and 7 illustrations; notes, references, $34.95 (paper), ISBN 0-936127-08-2.
Doing Archaeology: A Cultural Resource Management Perspective Thomas F. King. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press, 2005, 166 pp., $21.95 (paper).
Ancient Starch Research Robin Torrence and Huw Barton (eds). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press, 2006. 256 pp., 157 illustrations, $69.95 (hardcover).
Phillips: "Bringing Them under Subjection:" California's Tejón Indian Reservation and Beyond, 1852-1864
^"Bringing Them under Subjection:" California's Tejon Indian Reservation and Beyond, 1852-1864. George Harwood Phillips Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2004; xvii + 369 pp., maps, illustrations, tables, endnotes, bibliography, index; clothbound, $59.95.