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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Volume 4, Issue 1, 1982

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Archaeology and Linguistics: Pomoan Prehistory as Viewed from Northern Sonoma County, California

The present paper, then, compares archaeological data from the Warm Springs Dam Project in northern Sonoma County (Fig. 1) with various linguistically derived reconstructions of Pomoan prehistoryin an attempt to determine the time-depth of Pomoan presence in the area. The paper argues for the necessity of such a "combined approach" and examines the requirements and assumptions inherent in it. In so doing, what follows can be seen as a test case of at least one way in which culture process may be elaborated. Two cultural breaks are present in the Warm Springs sequence, one of which seems best explained by the influx or impingement of Pomoan-speaking peoples and one which can be explained in terms of in situ functional reorientation, perhaps linked with social intensification.

Two Historic Aboriginal Game-Drive Enclosures in the Eastern Great Basin

In the Great Basin, crickets, mud hens, and occasionally mule deer and desert bighorn sheep were the subject of aboriginal communal drives into traps and enclosures during historic times. However, jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) were the most regular victims of communal drives (Janetski 1981: 166-176; Annell 1961: 43-55; Steward 1938). The following paragraphs review pertinent ethnographic and archaeologic literature that Anan Raymond, Dept. of Anthropology, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99163. indicates the "Indian corrals" functioned as either pronghorn or jackrabbit traps.

Proposed Settlement Shifts during San Luis Rey Times: Northern San Diego County, California

This paper is concerned with those tributaries that drain into the San Luis Rey River from the Agua Tibia-Palomar Mountain block (see Fig. 3).

Dressing the Part: A Brief Look at the Development of Stereotypical Indian Clothing Among Native Peoples in the Far West

This paper will attempt to bring together available data on the acquisition, manufacture, and use of stereotypical Indian clothing among native Californians. It will briefly describe clothing at the time of contact with non-indigenous peoples and discuss the reasons that caused native people to adopt this new style of dress for public presentations.

Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Concave Base Projectile Points from the North Coast Ranges, California

Our study found that the Small point type has a distribution to the north and west of the Clear Lake basin; however, there is conflicting and limited evidence on the temporal position of this type. In the Northwest Coast Region, specimens similar to this type have been associated with the late prehistoric period (Milburn 1977), while in the North Coast Ranges Region, there are preliminary indications that the type was in use during an earlier period. If the Small type was contemporaneous with the Shallow Base and Shallow Base Shouldered types, then this assemblage appears to be restricted to the western portion of the North Coast Ranges. On the other hand, while numerous Small type specimens were found north of Clear Lake, only a few of the Shallow Base or Shallow Base Shouldered point specimens were found in this area.

Another Great Basin Atlatl with Dart Foreshafts and other Artifacts: Implications and Ramifications

The purpose of this paper then is to add new data on yet another distinctive Great Basin atlatl with attached weight and associated dart foreshafts, one of which still has a stone point attached to the shaft, and to explore the implications of such a find to studies of Great Basin culture dynamics. At the same time, the fallibility of the statistical support for the discriminant analysis which purportedly allows one to classify unknown projectile points as either arrowheads or dart tips (Thomas 1978) is examined. This paper, of course, builds upon extant studies of Great Basin atlatls (Hester, Mildner, and Spencer 1974), and other studies of atlatls known archaeologically and ethnographically in the New World (Grant 1979; Hester 1974a, 6 W.Taylor 1966; L. G. Massey 1972 W. Massey 1961; Driver and Massey 1957 Metraux 1949; Cressman, Williams, and Kreiger 1940; Cressman, et al 1942; Cressman 1944) and particularly in the Southwest (Kidder and Guemsey 1919; Guemsey and Kidder 1921; Guemsey 1931; Aveylera, Maldonado-Koerdell, and Martinez del Rio 1956).


A Bronze Sword Grip from Chumash Territory

A cast bronze sword grip in the shape of a crouching lion was excavated from the north side of the creek at Smuggler's Cove (Site 138) by Ronald Olson during his 1928 excavations on Santa Cruz Island (Fig. 1). This unusual artifact came from "Pit K" at a depth of 18 inches. It is now housed at the Lowie Museum of Anthropology, Univ. of California, Berkeley.

Costanoan Astronomy from the Notes of John P. Harrington

Although Harrington's notes on Costanoan astronomy are unfortunately brief and cryptic, they nonetheless indicate that these people shared in a number of concepts about the sky found among the Chumash to the south and the Pomo to the north. Given the complexity of astronomical knowledge known for both of these groups, it would suggest that the centrally positioned Costanoan very probably possessed a similar complexity. Perhaps additional Harrington notes will be found to provide further insight into this question.

A Compendium of Radiocarbon Dates for Southern Idaho Archaeological Sites

This report is a compilation of known radiocarbon dates reported from archaeological sites in southern Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an inventory of previously published and unpublished dates to facilitate use by researchers and cultural resource managers. Contemporary professional demands have created a surge of antiquities management and assessment studies which are quickly outpacing traditional research reports. Management decisions often rely on outdated chronologies which have not been critically evaluated. In addition, many radiocarbon dates are not readily available to scholars working in Idaho and adjacent areas. As systematic archaeological studies continue in Idaho, the need for usable research tools has increased (e.g., Pavesic, Plew, and Sprague 1979). The report attempts to expand the base of current archaeological interpretation and analysis. While the report does not evaluate individual published dates (e.g., Arundale 1981), it does provide an initial step toward reevaluation of the chronologies of the Upper Snake and Salmon River Country (Butler 1978) and forms a basis for generating chronologies for such areas as Southwestern Idaho (Plew, Pavesic, and Green n.d.).

The Use of Hydration Measurements to Date Obsidian Materials from Sonoma County, California

This report presents the results of two pilot studies carried out by the authors which compare the hydration rim values of Annadel obsidian from archaeological sites near Santa Rosa, California, with the cultural sequence proposed by Fredrickson (1973).

The Trail to Fernando

Femando Librado kitsepawit was among the most important native Californians to have lived during the historic era. Thanks to Fernando, and to the linguist-ethnographer, John P. Harrington, who wrote down what Fernando told him, a large corpus of Chumash linguistic data, traditional history, and lore has been preserved for future generations to enjoy and learn from.

Paleoecological Inferences from a Faunal Analysis of CA-SFr-07

An assemblage of 4130 invertebrate and vertebrate remains (805 of which are maximally identifiable) collected by Nelson are the subject of this report. Exact proveniences and associations of cultural and biological materials from CA-SFr-07 have not been recorded. The great majority of the faunal remains were collected from 3 to 6-ft. depths below the ground surface. Some fairly complete cranial materials were recovered from 6 to 9-ft. depths. Due to the nature of the retrieval methods employed in collecting the faunal materials, detection of possible changes in dietary preferences through time and a rigorous assessment of (unbiased) taxonomic and body part representations are not possible. The retrieval of fish remains was no doubt severely biased by this collection technique. Therefore, I have chosen to emphasize the diversity of food resources and habitat zones exploited by the inhabitants of CA-SFr-07 as evidenced by the faunal remains.

The 1776 Route of Father Francisco Garces into the San Bernardino Valley, California: A Reevaluation of the Evidence and its Implications

It has been shown that previous reconstructions of the 1776 route of Fr. Francisco Garces into and through the San Bernardino Valley, California, have been in error. Based upon a reevaluation of this route, there is also evidence to suggest revisions in both the existing views of the route of the Old Mojave Trail and the locations of various protohistoric/historic-period rancherias.

Kawaiisu Mythology and Rock Art: One Example

It is not often that archaeological work can be specifically related to ethnographically known sites. It is less often that one can discuss specific rock art from both an ethnographic and an archaeological standpoint. Teddy Bear Cave (as it has been known for 30 years) may be one such site. It contains rock art, has been investigated archaeologically, and is noted in the ethnographic literature. The site appears to have been important in Kawaiisu mythology and the rock art may be related to Kawaiisu myth.


Fowler and Matley: Material Cutlure of the Numa: The John Wesley Powell Collection, 1867-1880

Material Culture of the Numa: The John Wesley Powell Collection, 1867-1880. Don D. Fowler and John F. Matley. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology No. 26, 181 pp., 82 figs., 1979.

Zigmond: Kawaiisu Mythology, An Oral Tradition of South-Central California

Kawaiisu Mythology, An Oral Tradition of South-Central California. Maurice L. Zigmond. Socorro: Ballena Press Anthropological Papers No. 18, 1980, 252 pp., map, photos, $11.95 (paper).

McGuire and Garfinkel: Archaeological Investigations in the Southern Sierra Nevada: The Bear Mountain Segment of the Pacific Crest Trail

Archaeological Investigations in the Southern Sierra Nevada: The Bear Mountain Segment of the Pacific Crest Trail. Kelly R. McGuire and Alan P. Garfinkel, with contributions by Mark Basgall, Robert Jobson, David Rhode, and T B. Ruhstaller. U. S. Bureau of Land Management Cultural Resources Publications, Archaeology, unnumbered, 1980, xii -I- 304 pp., gratis (paper).