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Open Access Publications from the University of California

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Cover page of Motivation Matters: Development of a Short Form Measure of Solitude for Adolescents and Emerging Adults

Motivation Matters: Development of a Short Form Measure of Solitude for Adolescents and Emerging Adults

(2014)

Solitude affords adolescents and emerging adults opportunities for mood regulation (Larson, Csikszentmihalyi, & Graef, 1982), identity development (Larson, 1997), and self-reflection (Long & Averill, 2003) as they navigate the task of individuation (Grotevant & Cooper, 1998). The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Motivation for Solitude Scale (MSS) (Nicol, 2005); Nicol’s scale draws on Self-Determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002) and distinguishes between self-determined solitude (SDS) (i.e., moving toward the self for creative or reflective purposes) and not-self-determined solitude (NSDS) (i.e., withdrawing from people because of rejection or anxiety). The MSS represents an improvement over the widely used Preference for Solitude Scale (PSS) (Burger, 1995) because the PSS does not differentiate between positive and negative reasons for preferring solitude. Mental health outcomes, such as loneliness, correlated with the PSS may depend on individuals’ motivation for solitude. 

College students comprised the samples for the first (N = 284) and second wave (N = 266), and adolescents the third wave (N = 176).

Consistent with Nicol’s findings, while all subscales of the short-form MSS positively correlated with PSS, only NSDS and PSS correlated negatively with autonomy and positive relations with others, and correlated positively with loneliness. In addition, only PSS and NSDS were negatively associated with identity development and extraversion.

These findings provide support for the usefulness of the MSS, which suggests that the motivation to be alone is a key factor in whether the experience of solitude is risky or generative. Solitude is associated with poor mental health outcomes only when it is not self-determined, that is, characterized by a withdrawal from others because of anxiety, discomfort or rejection. Self-determined solitude is not correlated with loneliness.

Cover page of Coffee! A Misunderstanding

Coffee! A Misunderstanding

(2014)

"Coffee: A Misunderstanding" is an intentionally-awkward, computer-assisted interactive theatre performance.

Evidence for Cu2SnS3 Formation: An Important Step towards CZTS for Solar Applications

(2014)

This poster was presented at the 10th Annual Graduate Research Symposium, May 9, 2014, at McHenry Library.

  • 1 supplemental PDF

The Secret History of American River People: An Anthro-Historical Research Journey Through the History of a River

(2014)

The Secret History of American River People: An Anthro-Historical Research Journey Through the History of a River. This paper was presented at the 10th Annual Graduate Research Symposium, May 9, 2014, McHenry Library. 

  • 1 supplemental PDF

Herding Packets: How to get Packets To Go Where You Expect

(2014)

This was presented at the 10th Annual Graduate Research Symposium on May 9, 2014 at McHenry Library.

  • 1 supplemental PDF

Microclimate Matters: Airborne Fungal Spores in a Coastal Forest and Grassland

(2014)

Microclimate Matters: Airborne Fungal Spores in a Coastal Forest and Grassland. Poster presented at the 10th Annual Graduate Symposium, May 9, 2014, McHenry Library.

This poster was the Alumni Association Award winner for the Social Sciences Division.

  • 1 supplemental PDF

The Natchez Diaspora: A History of Indigenous Displacement and Survival in Early America

(2014)

The Natchez Diaspora: A History of Indigenous Displacement and Survival in Early America. This poster was presented at the 10th Annual Graduate Research Symposium, on May 9th, 2014, at McHenry Library. 

  • 1 supplemental PDF