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Open Access Publications from the University of California


Himalayan Linguistics is a free peer-reviewed web journal and archive devoted to the study of the languages of the Himalayas. It includes the series Languages and Peoples of the Eastern Himalayan Region, which incorporates the North East Indian Linguistics (NEIL) volumes.

Himalayan Linguistics

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Negation in Thadou

This paper attempts to discuss the different types of negative particles in Thadou, a Tibeto-Burman language of the Kuki-Chin subgroup spoken by around 231, 200 (Lewis 2009) speakers of northeast India and Myanmar. Thadou has three main negative particles – pòo, hìq, and lòw, in addition to the negative particles dàa and mɔ̀ɔ which most often occur as sentence final particles. Previous scholars working on the language, viz. Grierson (1904), Thirumalai (1971) and Krishan (1980) have discussed three of these negative particles, viz. pòo, hìq and lòw, in a much narrower sense by assigning only one negative construction for each negative particle. In this paper, I provide three constructions – declarative, interrogative and imperative – for the occurrence of each of the negative particles and argue that with the exception to the imperative construction, two or more negative particles can be used in the same construction with slight nuances of meaning.

A description of allophonic and morphophonological alterations in Chhatthare Limbu

In Chhatthare Limbu, many phonemes undergo allophonic alterations when occurring in different phonetic environments. Similarly, phonological changes of the stem or affix result from the interaction between phonemes in different morphological contexts. A monosyllabic stem final consonant syllabifies with a vocalic suffix, causing a verb stem alternate between consonantal and vocalic suffixes. Various types of affixal strings show different phonological processes such as deletion, epenthesis and assimilation which contribute to allophonic and morphophonological changes.