Pseudo-gray-scale halftone gratings for shearing and Hartmann wavefront sensors.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1364/ol.417408
Now in use on x-ray beamlines worldwide, shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing provide effective feedback for measuring and optimizing high-quality beams. Conventionally, both approaches spatially modulate the beam properties (amplitude or phase) using two-tone, binary patterns, leading to deleterious diffraction effects that must be mitigated. In shearing, the presence of multiple diffraction orders affects measurement near boundaries. In Hartmann, diffraction limits the measurement point density. We demonstrate that the use of pseudo-gray-scale halftone patterns in the diffracting elements can improve the performance of both techniques.