iTOUGH2: A multiphysics simulation-optimization framework for analyzing subsurface systems
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2016.09.005
iTOUGH2 is a simulation-optimization framework for the TOUGH suite of nonisothermal multiphase flow models and related simulators of geophysical, geochemical, and geomechanical processes. After appropriate parameterization of subsurface structures and their properties, iTOUGH2 runs simulations for multiple parameter sets and analyzes the resulting output for parameter estimation through automatic model calibration, local and global sensitivity analyses, data-worth analyses, and uncertainty propagation analyses. Development of iTOUGH2 is driven by scientific challenges and user needs, with new capabilities continually added to both the forward simulator and the optimization framework. This review article provides a summary description of methods and features implemented in iTOUGH2, and discusses the usefulness and limitations of an integrated simulation-optimization workflow in support of the characterization and analysis of complex multiphysics subsurface systems.