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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources


Underwater lighting at virtually all distances (including long ranges) produced by submerged lasers (pulsed and continuous) was measured on-axis and at off-axis angles out to 900 in seven types of water. All of these data are summarized by a single closed form equation for engineering use. Computer studies using this equation have extrapolated the data to other types of water. The equation can predict the performance of submerged lasers operating at any wavelength. Methods for measuring the applicable optical constants of natural waters are described. Techniques for long range underwater photography using conventional light sources are illustrated and supplemented by engineering equations.

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