The investigations that led to the founding of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) began as summer marine biological studies conducted by UC Professor William E. Ritter beginning in 1892. In 1903, Ritter and a group of San Diegans established SIO. The scientific scope of SIO's research has grown to encompass physical, chemical, geological, and geophysical studies of the oceans, earth and atmosphere as well as biological research.
A beach equilibrium model is developed that treats the outer (shorerise) portion of the profile independently from that of the inner (bar-berm) portion. The two portions are matched at the breakpoint-bar. The partitioning of the profile in this way is consistent with the different forcing modes on either side of the breakpoint. This formulation utilizes beach profile data not previously available. It is shown that both portions of the profile are well fitted by curves of the form h=Ax/sup m/, where h is positive downward and x is the positive offshore coordinate. Surprisingly, the value of m approximately=0.4 is nearly the same for shorerise and bar-berm and does not change significantly with seasonal beach changes (summer/winter). The principal difference between seasonal profiles is that in winter (higher waves) the breakpoint-bar is deeper and farther offshore while the berm crest is displaced landward. Thus the changes in seasonal equilibria are manifested by simple, self-similar displacements of the bar-berm and shorerise curves as a consequence of changes in surf zone width and O(1) variations in the factor A.
The primary goals of this project for JTO and ONR (Grant N00014-07-1-1060) were to further develop Extinction Imagers for use in the ocean environment, and to extend the capabilities into the Short Wave IR (SWIR). Extinction Imaging is a method for determining the effective extinction coefficient over an extended path using a sensor at one end of the path. It uses calibrated imagers to acquire the relative radiance of a dark target near the other the end of the path and the horizon sky in the direction of the dark target. It is completely passive and thus covert, and the hardware is robust and relatively inexpensive. It uses rigorous equations, which determine the extinction coefficient from the measured apparent contrast of the radiance of the dark target with respect to the horizon sky.
The project was very successful. We found that the ocean surface could readily be used as a dark target in red and SWIR wavelengths. Both the red and the SWIR measurement results were excellent for daytime. Comparisons with standard instruments, as well as uncertainty analysis, indicated that extinction imagers provide better measurements of the atmospheric extinction losses over extended paths than other methods of which we are aware.
Our secondary goals were to address the night regime, and to address slanted paths above the horizontal. Regarding night, we found that the visible sensor acquired excellent data, but the ocean surface was not a good dark target in our wavelengths. Recommendations on the handling of night are given in the report. Regarding the lines of sight above the horizon, we developed a slant path algorithm that determines beam transmittance. It performed very well. Recommendations are made regarding integration of these techniques for military applications.
Marine Physical Laboratory Technical Memorandum 420. Deep submergence facilities are now considered to be a vitalcomponent of the U. S. Navy fleet and the National OceanographicLaboratory System facilities inventory. Scientific use of mannedsubmersible systems is now routinely applied to a broad range ofscientific disciplines. Advancements in deep submergencetechnologies continue to require evaluation and assessment for theirscientific support potential. This study report assesses the scientificsupport potential of a specific new diver lockout submersible, theMARITALIA (3GST9), that may be added to the U.S. Navy deepsubmergence facilities inventory.
In using the data available during the conduct of a bearings only approach two rather different procedures are usually followed.
One is to attempt the complete solution for range, course and speed by taking usually six bearings while maneuvering the submersible in a rather specialized way. The other methods involve the use usually of three bearings and an assumed range or speed to calculate the course and the speed or range (whichever was not assumed).
The purpose of this paper is to show that using four bearings it is first actually possible to solve the problem completely (range, course and speed solution) in a very general way, and second to give in detail several simple, direct methods for making such a solution without restricting the motion of the submersible.
The Hydrographic Programme of the international World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) was a comprehensive global hydrographic survey of physical and chemical properties, of unprecedented scope and quality, and represents the "state of the oceans" during the 1990s. This PDF atlas is a copy of the published volume and contains full introductory text. Web access: doi:10.21976/C61595
Related Research Centers & Groups
- Aburto Lab
- Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation
- Climate Science and Policy
- Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes (CW3E)
- Integrative Oceanography Division
- UC San Diego Library – Scripps Digital Collection
- Marine Biology Research Division
- Oceanography Program, California Department of Parks & Recreation