Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

The investigations that led to the founding of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) began as summer marine biological studies conducted by UC Professor William E. Ritter beginning in 1892. In 1903, Ritter and a group of San Diegans established SIO. The scientific scope of SIO's research has grown to encompass physical, chemical, geological, and geophysical studies of the oceans, earth and atmosphere as well as biological research.

Cover page of Bibliography of the SIO Reference Series 1945 - 2002

Bibliography of the SIO Reference Series 1945 - 2002


The SIO Reference series embodied a numbering scheme for technical reports published by Scripps authors from 1945 to 2002, after which it ceased. Authors published and distributed these reports themselves, and there was no distribution list. The Reference series is inconsistent in its referral by authors. The abbreviation for SIO was used with and without periods. Variations include: SIO Reference; SIO Reference Series; SIO Reference Series No.; SIO Reference No. The numbers themselves are two-part. The first part is the last two digits of the year from 1945-2002, and the second part is the Scripps-assigned number within that year. Some reports were withdrawn by the authors after Reference numbers were assigned, so there are missing numbers.

Cover page of Scour and Burial of Bottom Mines: a Primer for Fleet Use

Scour and Burial of Bottom Mines: a Primer for Fleet Use


This primer is for fleet use as a means of rapid access to information on scour, burial, and re-exposure of bottom mines placed in nearshore waters. The format is easily adapted to a computer slide show where sequential illustrations such as progressive mine scour and burial could be in animated form. The illustrations detail mechanisms and burial rates characteristic of coastal and sediment type. The primer also addresses the ranges of uncertainty in mine burial estimates by showing burial dependence on mine characteristics and environmental factors. By providing both burial rate estimates and the probable error of those estimates, this primer facilitates tactical use and planning, particularly in areas of denied access. The emphasis here is on field experiments of the scour and burial of bottom mines in shallow and very shallow water (3 m - 61 m) and their comparison with simulations from computer models. However, the complexity of mine warfare and mine use makes it necessary to briefly discuss categories of mines, their basic components, and their means of delivery and planting. The reader is advised to consult the references for detailed information on these related topics. We understand that other studies of bottom mine burial have been made. Here, we report on those studies that have been declassified and made available to us.

Cover page of Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. III. Sensitivity Tests

Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. III. Sensitivity Tests


Simulated sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2, calculated by a threedimensional tracer inversion model of the global carbon cycle, have been subjected to tests to determine their sensitivity to uncertain model specifications and input data. The model, described in a companion article [Piper et al., 2001a], employs regional CO2 source components as boundary conditions to a three-dimensional transport model, TM2, driven by observed winds and a vertical convection scheme based on both observational data and dynamic theory. The model, by an inverse calculation, adjusts the strengths of 7 source components, pertaining to boreal, temperate, and tropical zones, to achieve an optimum fit to measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and 13C/12C isotopic ratio from 1981 through 1999 at an array of 9 stations. A standard reference fit was made using initial choices of model parameters and input data for wind, convection, temperature, solar irradiance, remotely sensed plant activity, and related factors, expressed as averages over as many years of recent data as were available for each, but with respect to winds and convection just for the year 1986. This standard case is challenged by means of sensitivity tests in which model specifications and input data have been varied. Although temporal variability in simulated oceanic and terrestrial biospheric sources and sinks deduced in this standard case mainly reflects variability in observations of atmospheric CO2, as much as a fourth is found to be owing to variable wind and convection, and some is likely to be due to temporally varying errors in the specification of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel which lead to nearly compensating departures in inferred biospheric fluxes. Averages of deduced fluxes and the patterns of variability are found to be only slightly sensitive to model specifications, except for the distribution of terrestrial fluxes near the La Jolla sampling site, set a priori, which strongly affects the deduced strength of the northern temperate biospheric sink. As a preferred model solution for further study of relationships to environmental factors and for comparison with other investigations, we adopted the specifications of the standard case in all respects except the distribution of sources and sinks in the vicinity of our observing station at La Jolla, California which is close to an urban area. Both the standard and preferred cases, supported by sensitivity tests, indicate that the terrestrial biosphere has been a sink of atmospheric CO2 in the temperate latitudes of both hemispheres over the past two decades, a source in the tropics and boreal zone. The oceans have been sinks everywhere except in the tropics.

Cover page of Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. II. A Three-Dimensional Tracer Inversion Model to Deduce Regional Fluxes

Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. II. A Three-Dimensional Tracer Inversion Model to Deduce Regional Fluxes


A three-dimensional tracer inversion model is described that couples atmospheric CO2 transport with prescribed and adjustable source/sink components of the global car- bon cycle to predict atmospheric CO2 concentration and 13C/12C isotopic ratio taking account of exchange fluxes of atmospheric CO2 with the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans. Industrial CO2 emissions are prescribed from fuel production data. Transport of CO2 is prescribed by a model, TM2, that employs 9 vertical levels from the earth’s surface to 10 mb, a numerical time step of 4 hours, and a grid spacing of approxi- mately 8° of latitude and 10° of longitude. Horizontal advection is specified from analyzed observations of wind. Vertical advection is consistent with mass conservation of wind within each grid box. Convective mixing and vertical diffusion are determined at each time step from meteorological data. The source/sink components represent various CO2 exchanges, some sources to the atmosphere, others sinks. The study focuses on establishing interannual variability in net terrestrial biospheric and net oceanic fluxes with the atmosphere revealed by variability in atmospheric CO2, taking account of possible stimulation of land plant growth ("CO2 fertilization") and oceanic CO2 uptake, as well as industrial CO2 emissions. Net primary production of land plants (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration are specified to vary only seasonally, on the basis of data averaged from 1982-1990, inclusive. NPP is determined from a vegetative index, NDVI, derived from remotely sensed radiometric data from satellites. Heterotrophic respiration is a function of surface air temperature. Oceanic exchange of CO2 varies seasonally as specified by a coefficient of CO2 gas exchange. Spatial varia- bility of all source/sink components is specified for each 8° x 10° grid box of TM2, a priori, for 5 terrestrial biospheric and 5 oceanic source/sink components, and with respect to emissions of industrial CO2. Spatial variations of terrestrial exchange are made proportional to NPP. Heterotrophic respiration similarly varies by setting its annual average for each grid box equal to NPP. Spatial variations in oceanic CO2 exchange take account of gas exchange dependence on wind speed and temperature and, in the tropics, on a time-invariant spatially variable specification of the partial pressure of CO2 of surface sea water, based on direct observations. Carbon-isotopic fractionation is taken into account for all chemical processes modeled. To produce an optimal fit to observations of atmospheric CO2, the inversion model adjusts the magnitude of 7 additional source/sink components divided with respect to tropical, temperate, and polar geographic zones. There are 4 terrestrial zones, excluding a southern polar zone of negligible importance. There are 3 oceanic zones: one tropical, and one combined temperate/polar zone in each hemisphere. Calculations are carried out in a quasi-stationary mode that repeats a single annual cycle 4 times, and saves the results for the final year. Alternatively, the model has been run in an extended response mode that takes account of a 4-year history of atmospheric CO2 response to a pulse introduced during the first year of this history. Interannual variations in exchange are established by adjusting the model to predict atmospheric CO2 concentration and 13C/12C ratio averaged for annual periods at overlapping 6-month intervals. Net CO2 exchange fluxes, seasonally adjusted, were determined from 1981-1999, inclusive, using atmospheric CO2 data reported by Keeling et al. [2001].

Cover page of Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. IV. Critical Overview

Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. IV. Critical Overview


CO2 are inferred by a three-dimensional tracer inversion model from simultaneous measurements of the concentration and 13C/12C isotopic ratio of atmospheric CO2. Terrestrial exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere range from −0.9 to +1.6 PgC yr−1 in the northern polar zone, −3.1 to +0.2 PgC yr−1 in the north temperate zone, −2.3 to +6.7 PgC yr−1 in the tropics, and −2.1 to +0.8 PgC yr−1 in the southern temperate zone. Oceanic exchange shows relatively little interannual variability, except in the tropics where a weak sink, up to −0.6 PgC yr−1 during El Nin˜o events in 1983, 1987, and 1998, alternated with a source, as great as 1.7 PgC yr−1. If isotopic data are disregarded as an indicator of interannual variability, inferred fluxes are altered only slightly in the polar and temperate zones, but substantially reduced in the tropical zone to a minimum sink of − 0.2 PgC yr−1 and a maximum source of 4.1 PgC yr−1. For three broader zones, divided at 30° N and S, average fluxes that we deduce from 1980-1989 and 1990-1996 agree within about 1 PgC yr−1 with decadal averages of 7 other inversion studies, except in the tropics where we find a larger source of CO2 than most other studies in the 1980’s and all other studies from 1990-1996. The interannual variability that we find exceeds that of most other studies.

Cover page of Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. I. Global Aspects

Exchanges of Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the Terrestrial Biosphere and Oceans from 1978 to 2000. I. Global Aspects


From 1978 through 1999 the global average concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide increased from 335 ppm to 368 ppm according to measurements of air samples collected at an array of ten stations extending from the Arctic to the South Pole. The global average rate of increase varied widely, however, with highest rates occurring in 1980, 1983, 1987, 1990, 1994, and 1998, all but the first of these calendar years near times of El Nin˜o events. The 13C/12C isotopic ratio of carbon dioxide, measured on the same air samples, varied in a similarly irregular manner, suggesting that exchange of atmospheric CO2 with terrestrial plants and soil is the dominant cause of both signals. Quantitative analysis of the data by a procedure called a "double deconvolution" supports this hypothesis but also suggests a variable exchange with the oceans, opposite in phase to the terrestrial exchange. This result may be in error, however, because it depends on an assumption that the global average isotopic discrimination of terrestrial plants has been constant. Allowing for a variation in discrimination of only about 1°/°° would eliminate the opposing fluctuations in oceanic flux, if its phasing has been opposite to that of the observed fluctuations in rate of change of CO2 concentration. In three companion articles that follow, we further deduce regional exchanges of CO2, making use of latitudinal gradients computed from the same atmospheric carbon dioxide data used in this global study.