Sustainable Campus with PEV and Microgrid
Market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) is gaining momentum, as is the move towards increasingly distributed, clean and renewable electricity sources. EV charging shifts a significant portion of transportation energy use onto building electricity meters. Hence, integration strategies for energy-efficiency in buildings and transport sectors are of increasing importance. This paper focuses on a portion of that integration: the analysis of an optimal interaction of EVs with a building-serving transformer, and coupling it to a microgrid that includes PV, a fuel cell and a natural gas micro-turbine. The test-case is the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore campus. The system under study is the Laboratory of Clean Energy Research (LaCER) Lab that houses the award winning Microgrid Energy Management System (MG-EMS) project. The paper analyses three different case scenarios to estimate the number of EVs that can be supported by the building transformer serving LaCER. An approximation of the actual load data collected for the building into different time intervals is performed for a transformer loss of life (LOL) calculation. The additional EV loads that can be supported by the transformer with and without the microgrid are analyzed. The numbers of possible EVs that can be charged at any given time under the three scenarios are also determined. The possibility of using EV fleet at NTU campus to achieve demand response capability and intermittent PV output leveling through vehicle to grid (V2G) technology and building energy management systems is also explored.