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Open Access Publications from the University of California

High-density electrical and optical probes for neural readout and light focusing in deep brain tissue

  • Author(s): Lanzio, V
  • West, M
  • Koshelev, A
  • Telian, G
  • Micheletti, P
  • Lambert, R
  • Dhuey, S
  • Adesnik, H
  • Sassolini, S
  • Cabrini, S
  • et al.

© The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. To advance neuroscience in vivo experiments, it is necessary to probe a high density of neurons in neural networks with single-cell resolution and be able to simultaneously use different techniques, such as electrophysiological recordings and optogenetic intervention, while minimizing brain tissue damage. We first fabricate electrical neural probes with a high density of electrodes and small tip profile (cross section of shank: 47-μm width × 16-μm thickness). Then, with similar substrate and fabrication techniques, we separately fabricate optical neural probes. We finally indicate a fabrication method that may allow integrating the two functionalities into the same device. High-density electrical probes have been fabricated with 64 pads. Interconnections to deliver the signal are 120-nm wide, and the pads are 5 × 25 μm. Separate optical probes with similar shank dimensions with silicon dioxide and silicon nitride ridge single-mode waveguides have also been fabricated. The waveguide core cross section is 250 nm × 160 nm. Light is focused above the waveguide plane in 2.35-μm diameter spots. The actual probes present two output focusing gratings on the shank.

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