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Roofline scaling trajectories: A method for parallel application and architectural performance analysis

Abstract

The end of Dennard scaling signaled a shift in HPC supercomputer architectures from systems built from single-core processor architectures to systems built from multicore and eventually manycore architectures. This transition substantially complicated performance optimization and analysis as new programming models were created, new scaling methodologies deployed, and on-chip contention became a bottleneck to performance. Existing distributed memory performance models like logP and logGP were unable to capture this contention. The Roofline model was created to address this contention and its interplay with locality. However, to date, the Roofline model has focused on full-node concurrency. In this paper, we extend the Roofline model to capture the effects of concurrency on data locality and on-chip contention. We demonstrate the value of this new technique by evaluating the NAS parallel benchmarks on both multicore and manycore architectures under both strong-And weak-scaling regimes. In order to quantify the interplay between programming model and locality, we evaluate scaling under both the OpenMP and flat MPI programming models.

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