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Magnetism in curved geometries

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Curvature impacts physical properties across multiple length scales, ranging from the macroscopic scale, where the shape and size vary drastically with the curvature, to the nanoscale at interfaces and inhomogeneities in materials with structural, chemical, electronic, and magnetic short-range order. In quantum materials, where correlations, entanglement, and topology dominate, the curvature opens the path to novel characteristics and phenomena that have recently emerged and could have a dramatic impact on future fundamental and applied studies of materials. Particularly, magnetic systems hosting non-collinear and topological states and 3D magnetic nanostructures strongly benefit from treating curvature as a new design parameter to explore prospective applications in the magnetic field and stress sensing, microrobotics, and information processing and storage. This Perspective gives an overview of recent progress in synthesis, theory, and characterization studies and discusses future directions, challenges, and application potential of the harnessing curvature for 3D nanomagnetism.

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