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Coherent soft X-ray pulses from an echo-enabled harmonic generation free-electron laser

  • Author(s): Rebernik Ribič, Primož
  • Abrami, Alessandro
  • Badano, Laura
  • Bossi, Maurizio
  • Braun, Hans-Heinrich
  • Bruchon, Niky
  • Capotondi, Flavio
  • Castronovo, Davide
  • Cautero, Marco
  • Cinquegrana, Paolo
  • Coreno, Marcello
  • Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle
  • Cudin, Ivan
  • Boyanov Danailov, Miltcho
  • De Ninno, Giovanni
  • Demidovich, Alexander
  • Di Mitri, Simone
  • Diviacco, Bruno
  • Fawley, William M
  • Feng, Chao
  • Ferianis, Mario
  • Ferrari, Eugenio
  • Foglia, Laura
  • Frassetto, Fabio
  • Gaio, Giulio
  • Garzella, David
  • Ghaith, Amin
  • Giacuzzo, Fabio
  • Giannessi, Luca
  • Grattoni, Vanessa
  • Grulja, Sandi
  • Hemsing, Erik
  • Iazzourene, Fatma
  • Kurdi, Gabor
  • Lonza, Marco
  • Mahne, Nicola
  • Malvestuto, Marco
  • Manfredda, Michele
  • Masciovecchio, Claudio
  • Miotti, Paolo
  • Mirian, Najmeh S
  • Petrov Nikolov, Ivaylo
  • Penco, Giuseppe Maria
  • Penn, Gregory
  • Poletto, Luca
  • Pop, Mihai
  • Prat, Eduard
  • Principi, Emiliano
  • Raimondi, Lorenzo
  • Reiche, Sven
  • Roussel, Eléonore
  • Sauro, Roberto
  • Scafuri, Claudio
  • Sigalotti, Paolo
  • Spampinati, Simone
  • Spezzani, Carlo
  • Sturari, Luca
  • Svandrlik, Michele
  • Tanikawa, Takanori
  • Trovó, Mauro
  • Veronese, Marco
  • Vivoda, Davide
  • Xiang, Dao
  • Zaccaria, Maurizio
  • Zangrando, Dino
  • Zangrando, Marco
  • Allaria, Enrico Massimiliano
  • et al.
Abstract

© 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), which amplify light emitted by a relativistic electron beam, are extending nonlinear optical techniques to shorter wavelengths, adding element specificity by exciting and probing electronic transitions from core levels. These techniques would benefit tremendously from having a stable FEL source, generating spectrally pure and wavelength-tunable pulses. We show that such requirements can be met by operating the FEL in the so-called echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) configuration. Here, two external conventional lasers are used to precisely tailor the longitudinal phase space of the electron beam before emission of X-rays. We demonstrate high-gain EEHG lasing producing stable, intense, nearly fully coherent pulses at wavelengths as short as 5.9 nm (~211 eV) at the FERMI FEL user facility. Low sensitivity to electron-beam imperfections and observation of stable, narrow-band, coherent emission down to 2.6 nm (~474 eV) make the technique a prime candidate for generating laser-like pulses in the X-ray spectral region, opening the door to multidimensional coherent spectroscopies at short wavelengths.

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