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Open Access Publications from the University of California

A Butterfly-Accelerated Volume Integral Equation Solver for Broad Permittivity and Large-Scale Electromagnetic Analysis.


A butterfly-accelerated volume integral equation (VIE) solver is proposed for fast and accurate electromagnetic (EM) analysis of scattering from heterogeneous objects. The proposed solver leverages the hierarchical off-diagonal butterfly (HOD-BF) scheme to construct the system matrix and obtain its approximate inverse, used as a preconditioner. Complexity analysis and numerical experiments validate the O(N log 2 N) construction cost of the HOD-BF-compressed system matrix and O(N 1.5 log N) inversion cost for the preconditioner, where N is the number of unknowns in the high-frequency EM scattering problem. For many practical scenarios, the proposed VIE solver requires less memory and computational time to construct the system matrix and obtain its approximate inverse compared to a H matrix-accelerated VIE solver. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed solver have been demonstrated via its application to the EM analysis of large-scale canonical and real-world structures comprising of broad permittivity values and involving millions of unknowns.

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