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Fracture shortly before stroke in mice leads to hippocampus inflammation and long-lasting memory dysfunction.

  • Author(s): Li, Zhengxi
  • Wei, Meng
  • Lyu, Haiyan
  • Huo, Kang
  • Wang, Liang
  • Zhang, Meng
  • Su, Hua
  • et al.
Abstract

Cognitive impairment occurs in stroke and hip fracture patients. In mice, bone fracture (BF) exacerbates stroke-related neuronal damage and sensorimotor dysfunction. We hypothesize that BF exacerbates post-stroke cognitive impairment. Adult mice were randomly assigned into BF, stroke, BF+stroke (BF 6 h before stroke), and control (sham operated) groups. Memory function was evaluated weekly for eight weeks by Y maze test and at eight weeks post-surgeries by novel object recognition (NOR) test. The neuronal damage and inflammation in hippocampus were analyzed three days and eight weeks after the surgeries. In Y maze test, BF+stroke mice started making fewer alternations than controls two weeks after the surgeries. Significant difference between BF+stroke and stroke groups started at five weeks post-injury and continued to the end of the experiment. In NOR test, BF+stroke group spent less time on novel objective than that of other groups. Cx3cr1+ cells and CD68+ cells accumulated in the stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM) on the ipsilateral side of stroke injury in stroke and BF+stroke mice. BF+stroke mice had a higher ratio of ipsilateral/contralateral Cx3cr1+ cell-density than that of stroke mice. Therefore, BF shortly before stroke exacerbates hippocampal inflammation and causes long-lasting memory dysfunction.

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