A STUDY OF CHANGES IN DEFORMATION AND METABOLISM IN LEFT VENTRICLE AS A FUNCTION OF HYPERTROPHY IN SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS USING MICROPET TECHNOLOGY:
Problem: In the case of hypertrophy caused by pressure overload (hypertension) there is an increase in cardiac mass and modification cardiac metabolism. Aim: This study was designed to study the changes in glucose metabolism, ejection fraction, and deformation in the left ventricle with the progression of hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Dynamic PET data were acquired using the microPET II at UC Davis. Two rats were imaged at 10-week intervals for 18 months. Each time a dose of approximately 1- 1.5 mCi of F-18-FDG was injected into a normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the same dose was injected into a SHR rat. Each rat was imaged using a gated dynamic acquisition for 80 minutes acquiring list mode data with cardiac gating of approximately 600-900 million total counts. For the analysis of glucose of metabolism, the list mode data were histogrammed into a dynamic sequence (42 frames over 80 mins). For each time frame, projection data of 1203 140x210 sinograms of 0.582 mm bins were formed by summing the last three gates before and one after the R-wave trigger to correspond to the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Dynamic sequences of 128x128x83 matrices of 0.4x0.4x0.582 mm3 voxels in x, y, and z were reconstructed using an iterative MAP reconstruction which used a prior that penalized the high frequency components of the reconstruction using appropriate weighting between 26 nearest neighboring voxels. Time activity curves were generated from the dynamic reconstructed sequence for the blood and left ventricular tissue regions of interest which were fit to a 2-compartment model to obtain a least squares fit for the kinetic parameters. For the analysis of deformation, the list mode data were histogrammed into 8 gates of the cardiac cycle, each gate was the total sum of the later 60 mins of the 80 min acquisition. Images of 128x128x83 matrices for each gate were reconstructed using the same iterative MAP reconstruction used to reconstruct the dynamic sequence. The in-plane image dimensions were doubled to 256x256x83 in order to increase the resolution for the Warping analyses. These image data sets were then cropped to 128x128x83. The end-systolic image data sets were designated as the template images and the end-diastole image data sets were designated as the target images, thus providing an analysis of the diastolic relaxation and filling phases of the cardiac cycle. The template images were manually segmented to create surface definitions representing the epi- and endocardial surfaces. Finite element models of the left ventricles were created using the segmented surfaces and defining a transversely isotropic material with fiber angles varying from the epicardial surface to the endocardial surface. A Warping analyses was performed to obtain the LV strain tensor and fiber stretch distributions. Results: In one study, the average first principal Green-Lagrange strain, fiber stretch, ejection fraction, and metabolic rate of F-18-FDG was 0.22, 1.08, 80%, 0.1 for the WKY rat and 0.16, 1.06, 50%, 0.25 for the SHR rat, respectively. These same rats studied a year later presented with a metabolic rate of F-18-FDG of 0.11 and 0.25 for the WKY and SHR, respectively. A follow-up study the average strain (n=10) and ejection fraction (n=18) was 0.21, 72.7% for WKY and 0.17, 69.8% for the SHR, respectively. Conclusion: In the case of pressure overload there is an increased reliance on carbohydrate oxidation in an attempt to maintain contractile function.