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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Search for Supernova Neutrinos and Constraint on the Galactic Star Formation Rate with the KamLAND Data


We present the results of a search for core-collapse supernova neutrinos, using long-term KamLAND data from 2002 March 9 to 2020 April 25. We focus on the electron antineutrinos emitted from supernovae in the energy range of 1.8-111 MeV. Supernovae will make a neutrino event cluster with the duration of ∼10 s in the KamLAND data. We find no neutrino clusters and give the upper limit on the supernova rate to be 0.15 yr−1 with a 90% confidence level. The detectable range, which corresponds to a >95% detection probability, is 40-59 kpc and 65-81 kpc for core-collapse supernovae and failed core-collapse supernovae, respectively. This paper proposes to convert the supernova rate obtained by the neutrino observation to the Galactic star formation rate. Assuming a modified Salpeter-type initial mass function, the upper limit on the Galactic star formation rate is <(17.5-22.7) M ⊙ yr−1 with a 90% confidence level.

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