In situ dynamic observations of perovskite crystallisation and microstructure evolution intermediated from [PbI6]4- cage nanoparticles.
Published Web Locationhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5482054/
Hybrid lead halide perovskites have emerged as high-performance photovoltaic materials with their extraordinary optoelectronic properties. In particular, the remarkable device efficiency is strongly influenced by the perovskite crystallinity and the film morphology. Here, we investigate the perovskites crystallisation kinetics and growth mechanism in real time from liquid precursor continually to the final uniform film. We utilize some advanced in situ characterisation techniques including synchrotron-based grazing incident X-ray diffraction to observe crystal structure and chemical transition of perovskites. The nano-assemble model from perovskite intermediated [PbI6]4- cage nanoparticles to bulk polycrystals is proposed to understand perovskites formation at a molecular- or nano-level. A crystallisation-depletion mechanism is developed to elucidate the periodic crystallisation and the kinetically trapped morphology at a mesoscopic level. Based on these in situ dynamics studies, the whole process of the perovskites formation and transformation from the molecular to the microstructure over relevant temperature and time scales is successfully demonstrated.