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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Fluorination effect for stabilizing cationic and anionic redox activities in cation-disordered cathode materials


Cation-disordered Li-excess cathodes with oxygen redox reactions are promising candidates for high-energy-density Li ion batteries. Nevertheless, the oxygen redox process that is required for the high capacity often comes with the oxygen loss, which leads to severe capacity degradation and voltage decay. In this work, we have successfully synthesized a series of Li-excess cation-disordered cathodes (Li1.2Mn0.4+xTi0.4-xO2-xFx) (0 ​≤ ​x ​≤ ​0.2) with different fluorine (F) contents. The electrochemical performance results show that the Li1.2Mn0.55Ti0.25O1.85F0.15 (LMTOF0.15) exhibits the highest reversible capacity (275 mAh g-1, under 30 ​mA ​g-1), cyclability, and voltage retentions. The mapping of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (mRIXS) and differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy (DEMS) results reveal that the fluorination enhances the reversible lattice oxygen redox reaction while suppressing irreversible gas release and surface reactions. The X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) during the initial two cycles shows that F-substitution alleviates the reduction of the Mn valence state during the whole (dis)charge processes in the bulk and at the surface of the material, results in higher average discharge voltage. In addition, the introduction of F improves the structural stability and suppresses local lattice distortion of the material. Therefore, LMTOF0.15 is able to cycle with smaller polarization, less interfacial side reaction and Mn dissolution, and therefore results in enhanced cyclability. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the fluorination effect on the cationic and anionic redox activities in cation-disordered Li-excess cathodes.

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