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Open Access Publications from the University of California

A quantitative model of charge injection by ruthenium chromophores connecting femtosecond to continuous irradiance conditions

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A kinetic framework for the ultrafast photophysics of tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) phosphonated and methyl-phosphonated derivatives is used as a basis for modeling charge injection by ruthenium dyes into a semiconductor substrate. By including the effects of light scattering, dye diffusion, and adsorption kinetics during sample preparation and the optical response of oxidized dyes, quantitative agreement with multiple transient absorption datasets is achieved on timescales spanning femtoseconds to nanoseconds. In particular, quantitative agreement with important spectroscopic handles-the decay of an excited state absorption signal component associated with charge injection in the UV region of the spectrum and the dynamical redshift of a ∼500 nm isosbestic point-validates our kinetic model. Pseudo-first-order rate coefficients for charge injection are estimated in this work, with an order of magnitude ranging from 1011 to 1012 s-1. The model makes the minimalist assumption that all excited states of a particular dye have the same charge injection coefficient, an assumption that would benefit from additional theoretical and experimental exploration. We have adapted this kinetic model to predict charge injection under continuous solar irradiation and find that as many as 68 electron transfer events per dye per second take place, significantly more than prior estimates in the literature.

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