Environmental hazards, social inequality, and fetal loss: Implications of live-birth bias for estimation of disparities in birth outcomes.
- Author(s): Goin, Dana E
- Casey, Joan A
- Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna
- Cushing, Lara J
- Morello-Frosch, Rachel
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1097/ee9.0000000000000131
Restricting to live births can induce bias in studies of pregnancy and developmental outcomes, but whether this live-birth bias results in underestimating disparities is unknown. Bias may arise from collider stratification due to an unmeasured common cause of fetal loss and the outcome of interest, or depletion of susceptibles, where exposure differentially causes fetal loss among those with underlying susceptibility.