Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Multi-transmitter multi-receiver null coupled systems for inductive detection and
characterization of metallic objects
- Author(s): Smith, J. Torquil
- Morrison, H. Frank
- Doolittle, Lawrence R.
- Tseng, Hung-Wen
- et al.
Equivalent dipole polarizabilities are a succinct way to summarize the inductive response of an isolated conductive body at distances greater than the scale of the body. Their estimation requires measurement of secondary magnetic fields due to currents induced in the body by time varying magnetic fields in at least three linearly independent (e.g., orthogonal) directions. Secondary fields due to an object are typically orders of magnitude smaller than the primary inducing fields near the primary field sources (transmitters). Receiver coils may be oriented orthogonal to primary fields from one or two transmitters, nulling their response to those fields, but simultaneously nulling to fields of additional transmitters is problematic. If transmitter coils are constructed symmetrically with respect to inversion in a point, their magnetic fields are symmetric with respect to that point. If receiver coils are operated in pairs symmetric with respect to inversion in the same point, then their differenced output is insensitive to the primary fields of any symmetrically constructed transmitters, allowing nulling to three (or more) transmitters. With a sufficient number of receivers pairs, object equivalent dipole polarizabilities can be estimated in situ from measurements at a single instrument sitting, eliminating effects of inaccurate instrument location on polarizability estimates. The method is illustrated with data from a multi-transmitter multi-receiver system with primary field nulling through differenced receiver pairs, interpreted in terms of principal equivalent dipole polarizabilities as a function of time.