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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Prospects for the expansion of standing wave ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy to reactions at elevated temperatures

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Standing wave ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy (SWAPPS) is a promising method to investigate chemical and potential gradients across solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces under close-to-realistic environmental conditions, far away from high vacuum. Until now, these investigations have been performed only near room temperature, but for a wide range of interfacial processes, chief among them being heterogeneous catalysis, measurements at elevated temperatures are required. One concern in these investigations is the temperature stability of the multilayer mirrors, which generate the standing wave field. At elevated temperatures, degradation of the multilayer mirror due to, for example, interdiffusion between the adjacent layers, decreases the modulation of the standing wave field, thus rendering SWAPPS experiments much harder to perform. Here, we show that multilayer mirrors consisting of alternate B4C and W layers are stable at temperatures exceeding 600 °C and are, thus, promising candidates for future studies of surface and subsurface species in heterogeneous catalytic reactions using SWAPPS.

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