Polytobacco Use and Nicotine Dependence Symptoms Among US Adults, 2012-2014.
- Author(s): Sung, Hai-Yen
- Wang, Yingning
- Yao, Tingting
- Lightwood, James
- Max, Wendy
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nty050
Introduction:The tobacco product landscape has changed substantially. Little is known about the recent pattern of polytobacco use (at least two tobacco products) among US adults and its relationship to nicotine dependence. Methods:Using the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) data (N = 135 425 adults), we analyzed the prevalence and correlates of polytobacco use among each of the six categories of current tobacco user (cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco). Based on five nicotine dependence symptom measures from the NATS, difference in the prevalence of dependence symptoms between polytobacco and sole-product users for each category of tobacco user was assessed using multivariable regression analyses. Results:During 2012-2014, 25.1% of adults were current users of any tobacco product. Among them, 32.5% were poly users with the largest poly use category being dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes (30.2%). Poly use prevalence was the lowest among current cigarette smokers (38.7%), followed by current users of smokeless tobacco (52.4%), hookah (59.2%), cigars (69.3%), e-cigarettes (80.9%), and pipes (86.2%). Among each category of current tobacco user, the prevalence of dependence symptom was consistently greater in polytobacco users than sole users for every symptom measure. After controlling for frequency of use and demographic covariates, the difference in nicotine dependence between poly users and sole users was statistically significant and consistent across all symptom measures for each category of tobacco user. Conclusions:Between 52% and 86% of noncigarette tobacco users and nearly 40% of cigarette smokers engaged in polytobacco use. Poly users showed greater nicotine dependence than sole-product tobacco users. Implications:This study examines recent patterns of polytobacco use separately for US adult current cigarette smokers, cigar smokers, pipe smokers, hookah users, e-cigarette users, and smokeless tobacco users. By including more tobacco products, particularly e-cigarettes and hookah, this study provides more comprehensive insight into polytobacco use. This study is also unique in comparing nicotine dependence between polytobacco and sole-product users among each category of tobacco users. Our results indicate that polytobacco use is very common and is associated with greater likelihood of reporting nicotine dependence symptoms. Tobacco cessation policies and programs should be tailored to address polytobacco use.