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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Super-resolution surface slope metrology of x-ray mirrors.

  • Author(s): Yashchuk, Valeriy V
  • Rochester, Simon
  • Lacey, Ian
  • Babin, Sergey
  • et al.

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We present experimental, analytical, and numerical methods developed for reconstruction (deconvolution) of one-dimensional (1D) surface slope profiles over the spatial frequency range where the raw data are significantly perturbed due to the limited resolution of the measurement instrument. We characterize the spatial resolution properties of a profiler with the instrument's transfer function (ITF). To precisely measure the ITF, we apply a recently developed method utilizing test surfaces with 1D linear chirped height profiles of constant slope amplitude. Based on the results of the ITF calibration, we determine parameters of an analytical model for the ITF that is used in the original reconstruction software. Here, we treat surface slope metrology data obtained with the Optical Surface Measuring System (OSMS), using as a sensor an electronic autocollimator (AC) ELCOMAT-3000. The spatial resolution of the OSMS is limited by the size of the AC light-beam-collimating aperture. For the purposes of this investigation, the OSMS is equipped with a circular aperture with a diameter of 2.5 mm. This is a typical arrangement of most AC-based slope profilers developed for surface slope metrology of state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors. Using the example of surface slope metrology of two state-of-the-art elliptically shaped x-ray focusing mirrors, we demonstrate that the developed data reconstruction procedure allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of surface slope metrology with the OSMS over the spatial wavelength range from ∼1.6 mm to 7 mm. Thus, the amplitude of the quasi-periodic error characteristic of the deterministic polishing process used appears to be higher by a factor of ∼2 than is apparent from the rough metrology data. Underestimation of the surface slope errors in this spatial wavelength range can lead to serious errors in the expected performance of x-ray mirrors in synchrotron beamlines, especially at modern light sources utilizing coherent x rays, where the perturbations can lead to increased speckle-like intensity variation.

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