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Open Access Publications from the University of California

From trivial to topological paramagnets: The case of Z2 and Z23 symmetries in two dimensions


Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we map out the phase diagram of Hamiltonians interpolating between trivial and nontrivial bosonic symmetry-protected topological phases, protected by Z2 and Z23 symmetries, in two dimensions. In all cases, we find that the trivial and the topological phases are separated by an intermediate phase in which the protecting symmetry is spontaneously broken. Depending on the model, we identify a variety of magnetic orders on the triangular lattice, including ferromagnetism, 3×3 order, and stripe orders (both commensurate and incommensurate). Critical properties are determined through a finite-size scaling analysis. Possible scenarios regarding the nature of the phase transitions are discussed.

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