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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Simulation-Based Analysis of Impacts of Reduced Envelope and Duct Air Leakage on Indoor Air Pollutant Concentrations in Occupied Manufactured Homes


This report presents a simulation-based analysis that estimates the magnitude of indoor air pollutant concentration changes that could result from the proposed energy conservation standards. The analysis was conducted for a 1568 ft2, double-wide MH with variations in heating and cooling equipment (either furnace + air conditioner or heat pump) and various types of whole-house mechanical ventilation (continuous exhaust fan or central fan integrated supply), in three locations with varying climate conditions: Chicago IL, Fresno, CA; and Houston TX. The simulations tracked four air pollutants that can reach levels exceeding established safe target levels in homes: acrolein, formaldehyde, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The simulations considered acrolein and formaldehyde emitted from continuous indoor sources; acrolein, NO2 and PM2.5 from cooking; PM2.5 from dispersed occupant activities; and NO2 and PM2.5 from outdoors, using historical data to identify typical levels. The impacts in homes operating or not operating whole-house mechanical ventilation equipment, kitchen and bath exhaust fans, and window opening as ventilation approaches were examined.

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