Quantum efficiency characterization of LBNL CCD's Part 1: the Quantum Efficiency
Instrumentation was developed in 2004 and 2005 to measure the quantum efficiency of the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL)total-depletion CCD's, intended for astronomy and space applications. This paper describes the basic instrument. Although it is conventional even to the parts list, there are important innovations. A xenon arc light source was chosen for its high blue/UV and low red/IR output as compared with a tungsten light. Intensity stabilization has been difficult, but sinceonly flux ratios matter this is not critical. Between the light source andan Oriel MS257 monochromator are a shutter and two filter wheels. High-bandpass and low-bandpass filter pairs isolate the 150-nm wide bands appropriate to the wavelength, thus minimizing scattered light and providing order blocking. Light from the auxiliary port enters a 20-inch optical sphere, and the 4-inch output port is at right angles to the input port. An 80 cm drift space produces near-uniform illumination on the CCD. Next to the cold CCD inside the horizontal dewar is a calibrated reference photodiode which is regulated to the PD calibration temperature, 25$^\circ$ C. The ratio ofthe CCD and in-dewar reference PD signals provides the QE measurement. Additional cross-calibration to a PD on the integrating sphere permitslower-intensity exposures.